Kuzey Cermenleri

İskandinavyalılar olarak da bilinen Kuzey Cermenleri, Nordik ülkelerinde yaşayan bir Cermen etnik ve dilsel grubu.[1] Halklar, kültürel benzerlikleri, ortak ataları ve bügünkü tüm Kuzey Cermen dillerinin evrildiği Eski Norsçanın atası olan Proto Norsça kullanmış olmaları ile tanımlanır.

Kuzey Cermenleri
Diller
Kuzey Cermen dilleri
Din

KökenlerDüzenle

Kuzey Cermen halklarının MS erken yüzyıllarda İsveç'te farklı bir grup olarak ortaya çıktığı düşünülmektedir.[2] Svearlar, Danlar, Geatler, Gutlar ve Rugii gibi Kuzey Cermen kabileleri Klasik Antik Çağ'da çeşitli yazarlar tarafından bahsedilmiştir. Sonraki Viking Çağı boyunca, genellikle Vikingler olarak adlandırılan denizci Kuzey Cermenleri, Avrupa ve ötesindeki topraklara baskınlar düzenlemiş, yerleşmiş, birkaç önemli devlet kurmuş ve Kuzey Atlantik'i Kuzey Amerika'ya kadar keşfetmiştir. Bu genişlemeden doğan etnik gruplar arasında Normanlar, Nors Galler ve Ruslar (Slav Ruslar ile karıştırılmamalıdır) yer alır. Viking Çağı'nın Kuzey Cermen halkları, karşılaştıkları kültürler tarafından farklı şekillerde isimlendirilmiştir ancak genellikle Norslar olarak adlandırılırlar.[3]

11. yüzyılda Viking Çağı'nın sona ermesiyle, Kuzey Cermen halkları İskandinav mitolojisini bırakarak Hristiyanlığı benimsemeye başlamış, daha önceki kabile toplumları merkezileşerek modern Danimarka, Norveç ve İsveç krallıklarına evrilmiştir.[3][4][5]

Modern Kuzey Cermen etnik gruplarını Danimarkalılar, İzlandalılar, Norveçliler, İsveçliler ve Faroeliler oluşturur.[6][7][8][9] Bu etnik gruplar İskandinavyalılar olarak isimlendirilir ancak bu adlandırma bazen İzlandalılar ve Faroelileri[10] kapsamayabilir.[1][11] Kuzey Cermen halkları, özellikle de Danimarkalılar, Norveçliler ve İsveçliler o kadar yakından ilişkilidir ki, akademisyenler bazen bu etnik grupları aynı ve tek bir halk olarak görürler.[12]

MitolojiDüzenle

''Prof. Sven Laga bring’in en önemli eseri dört ciltlik İsveç imparatorluğu Tarihi kitabı''

Lagerbring tarih kitabının birinci cildinde 1060 yılına dek Odin ve onun hanedanlığı olan İnıminhe krallarının hüküm sürdüğü Viking tarihini anlatmaktadır. Buradaki en önemli dayanağı İzlandalı siyasetçi, tarihçi, yazar Snoheş turleşine’nin, Edda adı altında topladığı İskandinav mitolojisi, söylenceleri, masalları ve destanlarıdır. Kitabının girişinde bunların güvenilirliğini sorgulamış, kendinden önceki değişik yerli yabancı tarihçilerin verdiği ve Ştolessine’nin anlattıklarıyla çakışan bilgiler ışığında bunların güvenilir olduğu sonucuna varmıştır. Hem Ştolessine’nin ve hem de Lagarbring’e göre Oden ve halkı Türkler ve Asyalılardır.[13] Odin'nin kökeni hakkında Iskandinav Mitolojisi ve önemli Akademisyenler, Türk kökenli olduğunu belirtirler.[14]

KaynakçaDüzenle

  1. ^ a b Ostergren & Le Boss 2011, s. ? "The North Germanic peoples occupied the southern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula. They subsequently spread westward across the Danish islands and Jutland, and their linguistic descendants today are the Scandinavians and the Icelanders."
  2. ^ Gordon & Taylor 1962 "Sweden was the mother of the Scandinavian peoples: from Sweden came both the Danes and the Norwegians. In the early days of Scandinavian expansion Norway was called the noróvegr, just as in later viking times the norðrvegr, just as in later viking times the Baltic lands were the austrvegr. The home of the oldest Norse culture and the oldest Norse traditions was Sweden, though these traditions had to be carried to distant Iceland before they were given an enduring form. Snorri made no mistake when he began his history of the northern nations, Heimskringla, with the legends of ancient Sweden."
  3. ^ a b D'Epiro 2010 "The Northmen, Norsemen, or Norse were North Germanic peoples who settled in the Scandinavian countries of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark"
  4. ^ Waldman & Mason 2006, ss. 831–835
  5. ^ Bruce 2014 "These Langobards thus lived south of the Angles and east of the Saxons, and were somewhat removed from the North Germanic people of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway"
  6. ^ Kennedy 1963, s. 50 "[T]he pages of history have been filled with accounts of various Germanic peoples that made excursions in search of better homes; the Goths went into the Danube valley and thence into Italy and southern France ; and thence into Italy and southern France; the Franks seized what was later called France; the Vandals went down into Spain, and via Africa they "vandalized" Rome; the Angles, part of the Saxons, and the Jutes moved over into England; and the Burgundians and the Lombards worked south into France and Italy. Probably very early during these centuries of migration the three outstanding groups of the Germanic peoples — the North Germanic people of Scandinavia, the East Germanic branch, comprising the Goths chiefly, and the West Germanic group, comprising the remaining Germanic tribes — developed their notable group traits. Then, while the East Germanic tribes (that is, the Goths) passed gradually out of the pages of history and disappeared completely, the North Germanic, or Scandinavian, or Norse, peoples, as they are variously called, became a distinctive people, more and more unlike the West Germanic folk who inhabited Germany itself and, ultimately, Holland and Belgium and England. While that great migration of nations which the Germans have named the Volkerwanderung was going on, the Scandinavian division of the Germanic peoples had kept their habitation well to the north of the others and had been splitting up into the four subdivisions now known as the Swedes, Norwegians, Danes, and Icelanders. Long after the West Germanic and East Germanic peoples had made history farther south in Europe, the North Germanic tribes of Scandinavia began a series of expeditions which, during the eighth and ninth centuries, in the so-called Viking Age especially, led them to settle Iceland, to overrun England and even annex it to Denmark temporarily, and, most important of all, to settle in northern France and merge with the French to such an extent that Northmen became Normans, and later these Normans became the conquerors of England."
  7. ^ Spaeth 1921, s. 190 "The word Nordic is used to suggest the racial origin of the peoples of Northern and Northwestern Europe. The word Germanic denotes their linguistic and cultural unity. The main divisions of Germanic are: 1. East Germanic, including the Goths, both Ostrogoths and Visigoths. 2. North Germanic, including the Scandinavians, Danes, Icelanders, Swedes, "Norsemen." 3. West Germanic. The Old English (Anglo-Saxons) belong to this division, of which the continental representatives are the Teutonic peoples, High and Low Franks and Saxons, Alemanni, etc. English and German are both West Germanic languages. Care should be taken not to confuse Germanic and German. Germcm (Deutsch) is the literary language of the High German division of the Teutonic dialects. "Germanic" (Germanisch) is a generic term covering all that is included in East, North and West Germanic."
  8. ^ Lawrence 1967, s. 37 "The Germanic peoples were of course in no way particularly identified with the territory covered by modern Germany; they stretched from southern Russia, where the Goths were settled in the fourth century, when they first came to grips with Roman power, to Iceland, which was settled mainly by Norwegians in the ninth century. The usual subdivisions are: North-Germanic, comprising the Danes, Swedes, Norwegians, and Icelanders; West- Germanic, mainly English (Anglo-Saxon), Dutch, and German; East-Germanic, Goths, Vandals, and Burgundians. These subdivisions have been established rather on the basis of language than of geographical location, yet, roughly speaking, the results of the two classifications coincide."
  9. ^ Thompson 1995, s. 494 "The North Germanic, or Scandinavian group, consists of the Norwegians, Danes, Swedes, and Icelanders. It is particularly interesting to follow the literary activity of three of these Germanic peoples, the Anglo-Saxons, the Scandinavians, and the Germans."
  10. ^ Kendrick 1930, s. 3 "The Viking Period of history-books, as is everywhere understood, does not extend backwards to include such early exploits but begins only at the end of the eighth century when the Scandinavian peoples and the Danes show unwonted activity and more than usual daring and persistency in their robberies across the seas."
  11. ^ Waldman & Mason 2006, s. 830 "The Vikings, known by a number of different names, the most prevalent alternate name Norse or Norsemen, were related to GERMANICS, that is, other Germanic-speaking peoples. Grouped together as SCANDINAVIANS they are also described as Danes, Swedes, and Norwegians, depending on the part of Scandinavia in which they originated..."
  12. ^ Grosvenor 1918, s. 534 "The Scandinavians, or the Danes, Norwegians and Swedes, Teutonic peoples, are so intimately related in race and history, that, except with frequent repetition, it would be impossible to discuss them separately."
  13. ^ "İskandinavların Türk Ataları". Araştırma yazısı.Yönetmen Tekin Gün. Mootol.Kültür Sanat,26 Aralık 2010. 10 Ağustos 2020 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. 
  14. ^ "Odin-Odin'nin Kökeni". İsveçli Tarih Profesörü Sven Lagerbring. Odin - Vikipedi. 2 Mart 2006 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. 

Dış bağlantılarDüzenle