Hemiptera

(Yarım kanatlılar sayfasından yönlendirildi)

Hemiptera, Insecta sınıfına bağlı bir hayvan takımıdır.[2][3][4]

Hemiptera
Yaşadığı dönem aralığı: 307-0 myö
Üst pensilvaniyen-Günümüz[1] 
Korunma durumu
Değerlendirilmedi (IUCN 3.1)
Biyolojik sınıflandırma Bu sınıflandırmayı düzenle
Âlem: Animalia
Şube: Arthropoda
Sınıf: Insecta
Üst takım: Paraneoptera
Takım: Hemiptera
Linnaeus, 1758

Taksonomi değiştir

Hemiptera takımına bağlı familyalar (2024):

  1. Acanaloniidae
  2. Acanthococcidae
  3. Acanthosomatidae
  4. Acanthosomites
  5. Achilidae
  6. Achilixiidae
  7. Aclerdidae
  8. Adelgidae
  9. Aenictopecheidae
  10. Aepophilidae
  11. Aetalionidae
  12. Agalliidae
  13. Albicoccidae
  14. Aleyrodidae
  15. Alydidae
  16. Aneuridae
  17. Anoecidae
  18. Anoeciidae
  19. Anthocephalidae
  20. Anthocoridae
  21. Anthocoridea
  22. Aphalaridae
  23. Aphelocheiridae
  24. Aphididae
  25. Aphrodidae
  26. Aphrophoridae
  27. Aphrophorides
  28. Aphylidae
  29. Apiomorphidae
  30. Apticoccidae
  31. Aradidae
  32. Aradiens
  33. Archegocimicidae
  34. Archescytinidae
  35. Archiconiopterygidae
  36. Archijassidae
  37. Arnoldidae
  38. Artheneidae
  39. Artheneina
  40. Asiaticaphididae
  41. Asterolecaniidae
  42. Aviorrhynchidae
  43. Bajsaphididae
  44. Beesoniidae
  45. Belostomatidae
  46. Bernacidae
  47. Bernaeidae
  48. Berstidae
  49. Berytidae
  50. Berytidea
  51. Berytinidae
  52. Biturritidae
  53. Biturritiidae
  54. Blattoprosbolidae
  55. Blissidae
  56. Boreoscytidae
  57. Burmacoccidae
  58. Burmitaphididae
  59. Caliscelidae
  60. Callaphididae
  61. Calophyidae
  62. Caloscelides
  63. Canadaphididae
  64. Canopidae
  65. Cantacaderidae
  66. Carayonemidae
  67. Carsidaridae
  68. Catacanderidae
  69. Ceratocombidae
  70. Cercopida
  71. Cercopidae
  72. Cercopionidae
  73. Cerococcidae
  74. Chaitophoridae
  75. Chiliocyclidae
  76. Cicadellidae
  77. Cicadidae
  78. Cicadoprosbolidae
  79. Cimicidae
  80. Cimicides
  81. Cixiidae
  82. Clastopteridae
  83. Coccidae
  84. Coelostomidiidae
  85. Coleoscytidae
  86. Colobathristidae
  87. Conchaspididae
  88. Coreidae
  89. Corixidae
  90. Creaphididae
  91. Cretamyzidae
  92. Cryptococcidae
  93. Cryptorhamphidae
  94. Cuneocoridae
  95. Curaliidae
  96. Curvicubitidae
  97. Cydnidae
  98. Cydnides
  99. Cymidae
  100. Cyrtocoridae
  101. Dactylopiidae
  102. Delphacidae
  103. Deltocephalidae
  104. Derbidae
  105. Diaspididae
  106. Dictyopharidae
  107. Dinglidae
  108. Dinidoridae
  109. Dipsocoridae
  110. Dorytocidae
  111. Dracaphididae
  112. Drepanochaitophoridae
  113. Drepanosiphidae
  114. Dunstaniidae
  115. Dysmorphoptilidae
  116. Ebboidae
  117. Elasmodemidae
  118. Electrococcidae
  119. Elektraphididae
  120. Ellinaphididae
  121. Enicocephalidae
  122. Eoscartarellidae
  123. Epipygidae
  124. Eriococcidae
  125. Eriosomatidae
  126. Errhomenellidae
  127. Eumenotidae
  128. Eurybrachidae
  129. Eurymelidae
  130. Evacanthidae
  131. Flatidae
  132. Fulgoridae
  133. Fulgoridiidae
  134. Galgulidae
  135. Gallinsecta
  136. Gelastocoridae
  137. Genaphididae
  138. Gengidae
  139. Geocoridae
  140. Gerridae
  141. Granulidae
  142. Grassyaphididae
  143. Greenideidae
  144. Grimaldiellidae
  145. Grohnidae
  146. Hadrocoridae
  147. Halimococcidae
  148. Hammanococcidae
  149. Hebridae
  150. Hebrides
  151. Hebroveliidae
  152. Hecalidae
  153. Helotrephidae
  154. Henicocoridae
  155. Hermatobatidae
  156. Heterogastridae
  157. Hispanocaderidae
  158. Hodgsonicoccidae
  159. Homotomidae
  160. Hoploridiidae
  161. Hormaphidae
  162. Hormaphididae
  163. Hydrocorisae
  164. Hydrometraedes
  165. Hydrometridae
  166. Hylicellidae
  167. Hylicidae
  168. Hyocephalidae
  169. Hypochthonellidae
  170. Hypsipterygidae
  171. Idioceridae
  172. Idiostolidae
  173. Ignotalidae
  174. Ignotingidae
  175. Ingruidae
  176. Inkaidae
  177. Inoderbidae
  178. Ipsviciidae
  179. Isolitaphididae
  180. Isometopidae
  181. Issidae
  182. Jascopidae
  183. Jersicoccidae
  184. Joppeicidae
  185. Jubisentidae
  186. Juraphididae
  187. Jurocallidae
  188. Karabasiidae
  189. Karanabidae
  190. Katlasidae
  191. Kermesidae
  192. Kermesites
  193. Kermidae
  194. Kerriidae
  195. Khatangaphididae
  196. Kinnaridae
  197. Kobdocoridae
  198. Kozariidae
  199. Kukaspididae
  200. Kuwaniidae
  201. Labiococcidae
  202. Lacciferidae
  203. Lachnidae
  204. Lalacidae
  205. Largidae
  206. Largides
  207. Lasiochilidae
  208. Lebanaphididae
  209. Lebanococcidae
  210. Lecaniodiaspididae
  211. Lecanodiaspididae
  212. Ledridae
  213. Leotichiidae
  214. Leptaphelocheiridae
  215. Leptopidae
  216. Leptopodidae
  217. Leptopodiens
  218. Lestoniidae
  219. Liadopsyllidae
  220. Ligavenidae
  221. Lithuanicoccidae
  222. Liviidae
  223. Lophophidae
  224. Lophopidae
  225. Lutevanaphididae
  226. Lyctocoridae
  227. Lygaeidae
  228. Machaerotidae
  229. Macrodrilidae
  230. Macroveliidae
  231. Madeoveliidae
  232. Magnacicadiidae
  233. Maguviopseidae
  234. Malcidae
  235. Malmopsyllidae
  236. Marchalinidae
  237. Margarodidae
  238. Matsucoccidae
  239. Medocostidae
  240. Meenoplidae
  241. Megarididae
  242. Melizoderidae
  243. Membracidae
  244. Meschiidae
  245. Mesogereonidae
  246. Mesojabloniidae
  247. Mesopentacoridae
  248. Mesotrephidae
  249. Mesoveliidae
  250. Mesozoicaphididae
  251. Micrococcidae
  252. Micronectidae
  253. Microphysidae
  254. Mimarachnidae
  255. Mindaridae
  256. Minlagerrontidae
  257. Miridae
  258. Mirides
  259. Monophlebidae
  260. Monophlebites
  261. Myerslopiidae
  262. Nabidae
  263. Naibiidae
  264. Naucoridae
  265. Neazoniidae
  266. Neopsylloididae
  267. Nepidae
  268. Neucoridae
  269. Nicomiidae
  270. Ninidae
  271. Nirvanidae
  272. Nogodinidae
  273. Notonectidae
  274. Ochteridae
  275. Omaniidae
  276. Orthezides
  277. Ortheziidae
  278. Oviparosiphidae
  279. Oxycarenidae
  280. Pachygronthidae
  281. Pachymeridiidae
  282. Pachynomidae
  283. Palaeoaphididae
  284. Palaeoleptidae
  285. Palaeontinidae
  286. Palaeotanyrhinidae
  287. Paraknightiidae
  288. Paraphrynoveliidae
  289. Paraprotopsyllidiidae
  290. Parastrachiidae
  291. Parvaverrucosidae
  292. Peataspidae
  293. Peloridiidae
  294. Pemphigidae
  295. Pennygullaniidae
  296. Pentatomidae
  297. Penthimiidae
  298. Pereboriidae
  299. Perforissidae
  300. Permaleurodidae
  301. Permoridiidae
  302. Phacopteronidae
  303. Phenacoleachiidae
  304. Phleides
  305. Phloeidae
  306. Phoenicococcidae
  307. Phylloxeridae
  308. Phymatidae
  309. Piesmatidae
  310. Piesmidae
  311. Piesmides
  312. Pincombeidae
  313. Pityococcidae
  314. Plataspidae
  315. Plataspididae
  316. Pleidae
  317. Plokiophilidae
  318. Polyctenidae
  319. Postopsyllidiidae
  320. Potamocoridae
  321. Primipentatomidae
  322. Probascaniidae
  323. Probascanionidae
  324. Procercopidae
  325. Progonocimicidae
  326. Propreocoridae
  327. Prosbolidae
  328. Prosbolopseidae
  329. Prosbolopsidae
  330. Protocoridae
  331. Protopsyllidiidae
  332. Pseudococcidae
  333. Pseudonerthridae
  334. Psyllidae
  335. Pterocimicidae
  336. Putoidae
  337. Pyrrhocoridae
  338. Pyrrhocorides
  339. Qinococcidae
  340. Qiyangiricaniidae
  341. Rasnitsynaphididae
  342. Reduviidae
  343. Retinaphididae
  344. Rhizoecidae
  345. Rhopalidae
  346. Rhyparochromidae
  347. Rhyparochromides
  348. Ricanides
  349. Ricaniidae
  350. Saldidae
  351. Saldides
  352. Scaphocoridae
  353. Schizopteridae
  354. Scutelleridae
  355. Scytinopteridae
  356. Serafinidae
  357. Serpentivenidae
  358. Shaposhnikoviidae
  359. Shurabellidae
  360. Simulaphididae
  361. Sinaphididae
  362. Sinoalidae
  363. Sinojuraphididae
  364. Steingeliidae
  365. Stemmocryptidae
  366. Stenocephalidae
  367. Stenoviciidae
  368. Stictococcidae
  369. Surijokocixiidae
  370. Szeiiniidae
  371. Szelegiewicziidae
  372. Tachardiidae
  373. Taimyrocoridae
  374. Tajmyraphididae
  375. Termitaphididae
  376. Tessaratomidae
  377. Tesseratomidae
  378. Tettigarctidae
  379. Tettigellidae
  380. Tettigometrae
  381. Tettigometridae
  382. Thaumastellidae
  383. Thaumastocoridae
  384. Thelaxidae
  385. Thyreocoridae
  386. Tibicinidae
  387. Tingidae
  388. Torirostratidae
  389. Torrirostratidae
  390. Triassoaphididae
  391. Triassocoridae
  392. Triozidae
  393. Trisegmentatidae
  394. Tropiduchidae
  395. Ulopidae
  396. Urostylididae
  397. Velides
  398. Veliidae
  399. Velocipedidae
  400. Venicoridae
  401. Vetanthocoridae
  402. Vianaididae
  403. Weitschatidae
  404. Weiwoboidae
  405. Xishanidae
  406. Xulsigiidae
  407. Xylococcidae
  408. Yetkhatidae
  409. Yuripopovinidae

Konuyla ilgili yayınlar değiştir

  • Linnaeus C., Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Editio Decima 1, 1-824 doi:10.5962/bhl.title.542
  • Schreber J. C. D., Novae Species Insectorum, 1-16
  • Linnaeus C., Fauna Svecica: Sistens Animalia Sveciae Regni: Mammalia, Aves, Amphibia, Pisces, Insecta, Vermes, Distributa per Classes & Ordines, Genera & Species, cum Differentiis Specierum, Synonymis Auctorum, Nominibus Incolarum, Locis Natalium, Descriptionibus Insectorum, 1-578
  • Geoffroy E. L., Histoire Abregée des Insectes qui se Trouvent aux Environs de Paris, Tome Premier, 1-523
  • Scopoli G. A., Entomologica Carniolica Exhibens Insecta Carnioliae Indigena et Distributa in Ordines, Genera, Species, Varietates Methodo Linnaeana, 1-421
  • Müller O. F., Fauna Insectorum Fridrichsdalina, Sive Methodica Descriptio Insectorum Agri Fridrichsdalensis, cum Characteribus Genericis et Specificis, Nominibus Trivialibus, Locis Natalibus, Iconibus Allegatis, Novisque Pluribus Speciebus Additis, 1-96
  • Linnaeus C., Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Editio Duodecima 1 2, 533-1327
  • Drury D., Illustrations of Natural History. Wherein are Exhibited Upwards of Two Hundred and Forty Figures of Exotic Insects, According to Their Different Genera; Very Few of Which Have Hitherto Been Figured by any Author, Being Engraved and Coloured from Nature, with the Greatest Accuracy, and Under the Author's Own Inspection, on Fifty Copper-Plates. With a Particular Description of each Insect: Interspersed with Remarks and Reflections on the Nature and Properties of Many of Them 1, 1-130
  • Forster J. R., Novae Species Insectorum. Centuria I, 1-100
  • Fabricius J. C., Systema Entomologiae, Sistens Insectorum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species Adiectis Synonymis, Locis, Descriptionibus, Observationibus, 1-832
  • Müller O. F., Zoologicae Danicae Prodromus, seu Animalium Daniae et Norvegiae Indigenarum. Characteres, Nomina et Synonyma Imprimis Popularium, 1-281
  • Harris M., An Exposition of English Insects, Including the Several Classes of Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, & Diptera, or Bees, Flies, & Libellulae, 73-166
  • Latreille P. A., Précis des Caractères Génériques des Insectes Disposés dans un Ordre Naturel, 1-201
  • Fabricius J. C., Supplementum Entomologiae Systematicae, 1-572
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  • von Heyden C. Gliederthiere aus der Braunkohle des Niederrhein's, der Wetterau und der Röhn, Palaeontographica 10, 62-82
  • Heer O., Die Urwelt der Schweiz, 1-622
  • Weyenbergh H. Sur les Insectes fossiles du Calcaire Lithographique de la Bavière, qui se trouvent au Musée Teyler, Archives de Musée Teyler 2, 1-48
  • Scudder S. H. The First Discovered Traces of Fossil Insects in the American Tertiaries, Bulletin of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories 3, 741-762
  • Scudder S. H. The Tertiary Insects of North America, Report of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories XIII, 1-734
  • Cockerell T. D. A. (1925) Fossil insects in the United States National Museum, Proceedings of the United States National Museum 64 13, 1-15
  • Piton L. (1940), Paléontologie du Gisement Éocéne de Menat (Puy-de-Dôme) (Flore et Faune), 1-303
  • Statz G. (1950) Cicadariae (Zikaden) aus den Oberoligocanen Ablagerungen von Rott, Palaeontographica Abteilung A 98, 1-46
  • Hong Y. C. (1982), Mesozoic Fossil Insects of Jiuquan Basin in Gansu Province, 1-187
  • Vega F. J., García-Barrera P., et al (2006) El Espinal, a new plattenkalk facies locality from the Lower Cretaceous Sierra Madre Formation, Chiapas, southeastern Mexico, Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas 23 3, 323-333
  • Nel P., Azar D., et al (2012) From Carboniferous to Recent: wing venation enlightens evolution of thysanopteran lineage, Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 10, 385-399
  • Misof B., Liu S. L., et al (2014) Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution, Science 346, 763-767
  • Prokop J., Szwedo J., et al (2015) New Middle Permian insects from Salagou Formation of the Lodève Basin in southern France (Insecta: Pterygota), Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 51, 14-51
  • Yoshizawa K., Leinhard C. (2016) Bridging the gap between chewing and sucking in the hemipteroid insects: new insights from Cretaceous amber, Zootaxa 4079, 229-245
  • Johnson K. P., Dietrich C. H., et al (2018) Phylogenomics and the evolution of hemipteroid insects, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences doi:10.1073/pnas.1815820115

Kaynakça değiştir

  1. ^ Wang, Yan-hui; Engel, Michael S.; Rafael, José A.; Wu, Hao-yang; Rédei, Dávid; ve diğerleri. (2016). "Fossil record of stem groups employed in evaluating the chronogram of insects (Arthropoda: Hexapoda)". Scientific Reports. Cilt 6. s. 38939. Bibcode:2016NatSR...638939W. doi:10.1038/srep38939. PMC 5154178 $2. PMID 27958352. 
  2. ^ "ITIS". 30 Ekim 2013 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. Erişim tarihi: 14 Ağustos 2023. 
  3. ^ "GBIF". 8 Aralık 2023 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. Erişim tarihi: 17 Mart 2024. 
  4. ^ "PaleoBioDB". 18 Mart 2024 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. Erişim tarihi: 17 Mart 2024. 

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