Liberal Birlikçi Parti

Britanyalı siyasi parti (1886-1912)

Liberal Birlik Partisi (İngilizceLiberal Unionist Party) 1886'da Liberal Parti'den ayrılan bir grup tarafından kurulan bir Britanyalı siyasi partidir. Lord Hartington (daha sonra Devonshire Dükü) ve Joseph Chamberlain tarafından yönetilen parti, İrlanda Özyönetim Hareketi'ne karşı Muhafazakâr Parti ile siyasi bir ittifak kurdu. İki parti 1895-1905 yılları arasında on yıllık koalisyon Birlik Hükûmeti'ini kurdular, ancak Mayıs 1912'de Liberal Birlik ve Muhafazakar partiler arasında tam bir birleşme kabul edilene kadar ayrı siyasi fonları ve kendi parti örgütlerini muhafaza ettiler.[2][3]

Liberal Birlik Partisi
Liderler
Kuruluş tarihi1886 (1886)
Kapanış tarihi1912 (1912)
BirleşmeMuhafazakâr Parti
BölünmeLiberal Parti
MerkezLondra
İdeoloji
Siyasi pozisyonMerkezden[1] merkez sağa
Birleşik Krallık

Seçim sonuçları değiştir

Seçim sonuçları[4]
Seçim Lider Adaylar Oy (#) Oy (%) Kazanılan sandalye Hükûmet
1886 The Marquess of Hartington 160 416.391 14,0%
77 / 670
Muhafazakâr–Liberal Birlik
1892 Spencer Cavendish, 8th Duke of Devonshire 137 468.729 10,2%
48 / 670
Liberal azınlık
1895 Spencer Cavendish, 8th Duke of Devonshire 111 358.672 9,3%
71 / 670
Muhafazakâr–Liberal Birlik
1900 Spencer Cavendish, 8th Duke of Devonshire 101 300.685 8,5%
67 / 670
Muhafazakâr–Liberal Birlik
1906 Joseph Chamberlain 100 410.161 7,3%
27 / 670
Liberal
Ocak 1910 Joseph Chamberlain 101 492.473 7,4%
43 / 670
Liberal azınlık
Aralık 1910 Joseph Chamberlain 75 298.606 5,7%
49 / 670
Liberal azınlık

Ayrıca bakınız değiştir

Kaynakça değiştir

  1. ^ Blaxill, Luke (2016). "Opposition to Irish Home Rule". Huzzey, Richard; Childs, Mike (Ed.). Campaigning for Change: Lessons from History (İngilizce). Londra. s. 106. Having two parties and two sets of leaders allowed the Unionists to appeal to a broader group of voters and remain anchored in the political centre. 
  2. ^ Wesley Ferris, "The Liberal Unionist Party, 1886–1912"" (PhD dissertation, McMaster University, 2008.
  3. ^ Ian Cawood, The Liberal Unionist Party: A History (2012)
  4. ^ Ferris, Wesley (2011). "The Candidates of the Liberal Unionist Party, 1886–1912". Parliamentary History. 30# 2: 142–157. doi:10.1111/j.1750-0206.2011.00246.x.

Konuyla ilgili yayınlar değiştir

  • Bebbington, D. W. The Nonconformist Conscience: Chapel and Politics, 1870–1914 (George Allen & Unwin, 1982).
  • Bentley, Michael. The Climax of British Politics: British Liberalism in Theory and Practice 1868–1918 (Edward Arnold, 1987).
  • Bernstein, George L. Liberalism and Liberal Politics in Edwardian England (Allen & Unwin, 1986).
  • Blewett, Neal. The Peers, the Parties and the People: the general elections of 1910 (U of Toronto Press, 1972).
  • Cawood, Ian. The Liberal Unionist Party: A History (I.B. Tauris. 2012)., 362, pp. online review and historiography by Iain Sharpe 18 Kasım 2016 tarihinde Wayback Machine sitesinde arşivlendi.; the only full-scale history of the party in print; see Ferris (2008) below
  • Cawood, Ian. "The 1892 General Election and the Eclipse of the Liberal Unionists." Parliamentary History 29.3 (2010): 331–57.
  • Cawood, Ian. "The Unionist 'Compact' in West Midland Politics 1891–1895." Midland History 30 (2005): 92–111.
  • Craig, F.W.S., (Ed.) (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results 1885–1918. Macmillan. 
  • Davis, Peter. "The Liberal Unionist Party and the Irish Policy of Lord Salisbury's Government, 1886–1892" Historical Journal 18#1 (1975), p. 85–104.
  • Fair, John D. "From Liberal to Conservative: The Flight of the Liberal Unionists after 1886." Victorian Studies (1986): 291–314. in JSTOR 2 Nisan 2017 tarihinde Wayback Machine sitesinde arşivlendi.
  • Fair, John D. "Party Voting Behaviour in the British House of Commons, 1886–1918,' Parliamentary History 5#1 (1986), pp. 65–82.
  • Ferris, Wesley. "The Liberal Unionist Party, 1886–1912" (PhD dissertation, McMaster University, 2008. online 18 Şubat 2017 tarihinde Wayback Machine sitesinde arşivlendi.; Detailed bibliography pp 397–418. full text online
  • Ferris, Wesley (2011). "The Candidates of the Liberal Unionist Party, 1886–1912". Parliamentary History. 30# 2 (2): 142-157. doi:10.1111/j.1750-0206.2011.00246.x. 
  • France, John. "Salisbury and the Unionist Alliance" in Robert Blake and Hugh Cecil, eds., Salisbury: The Man and his Policies (Macmillan, 1987), pp. 219–251.
  • Fraser, Peter. "The Liberal Unionist Alliance: Chamberlain, Hartington, and the Conservatives, 1886–1904." English Historical Review 77#302 (1962): 53–78. in JSTOR 2 Nisan 2017 tarihinde Wayback Machine sitesinde arşivlendi.
  • Goodman, Gordon L. "Liberal Unionism: the revolt of the Whigs." Victorian Studies 3.2 (1959): 173–189. in JSTOR 2 Nisan 2017 tarihinde Wayback Machine sitesinde arşivlendi.
  • Holland, Bernard Henry. The Life of Spencer Compton, eighth duke of Devonshire. (2 vols 1911). online vol 1 and online vol 2
  • Jackson, Patrick. The Last of the Whigs: A Political Biography of Lord Hartington, later Eighth Duke of Devonshire (1833–1908) (Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press, 1994).
  • Jenkins, T. A. "The funding of the Liberal Unionist party and the honours system." English Historical Review 105.417 (1990): 920–93 in JSTOR 2 Nisan 2017 tarihinde Wayback Machine sitesinde arşivlendi.
  • Jenkins, T. A. "Hartington, Chamberlain and the Unionist Alliance, 1886–1895" Parliamentary History 11#1 (1992) pp. 108–138.
  • Lloyd-Jones, N. (August 2015). "Liberal Unionism and Political Representation in Wales, c.1886–1893". Historical Research. 88 (241): 482-507. doi:10.1111/1468-2281.12092. 
  • McCaffrey, John F. "The Origins of Liberal Unionism in the West of Scotland" Scottish Historical Review Vol. 50 (1971) pp. 47–71.
  • Marsh, Peter T. (1994). Joseph Chamberlain: Entrepreneur in Politics. Yale University Press. 
  • Parry, J. (1996). The Rise and Fall of Liberal Government in Victorian Britain (2nd bas.). Yale University Press. 
  • Parry, Jonathan. "Cavendish, Spencer Compton, marquess of Hartington and eighth duke of Devonshire (1833–1908)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2008, accessed 5 Jan 2014].
  • Rempel, Richard A. Unionists Divided; Arthur Balfour, Joseph Chamberlain and the Unionist Free Traders (Archon Books, 1972).
  • Searle, G. R. Country Before Party: Coalition and the Idea of "National Government" in modern Britain, 1885–1987 (1995).
  • Searle, G. R. A New England?: Peace and War 1886–1918 (2004) survey of the era.
  • Sharpe, Iain. "Review of: The Liberal Unionist Party: A History" Reviews in History (2012) online 18 Kasım 2016 tarihinde Wayback Machine sitesinde arşivlendi.; historiography

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