"I. Konstantin" sayfasının sürümleri arasındaki fark

 
== Hayatı ==
=== Doğumu ve "Tetrarşi Dönemi" ===
Günümüzde [[Sırbistan]] Cumhuriyeti içinde yer alan tarihte ise [[İlirya]] toprakları içerisinde yer alan Naissus'da ([[Niş, Sırbistan|Niş]]) doğan I. Konstantin, sonradan imparatorluğa kadar yükselecek olan Romalı general [[Konstantius Chlorus]]'un oğlu olarak dünyaya geldi. 19 yaşında Nicomedia'da (İzmit) imparator [[Diokletian]]'un maiyetine giren Konstantin'in önü, babasının tetrarşiye (Dörtlü yönetim) girmesiyle açıldı. MS 305 yılında tetrarklardan [[Maximian]]'un çekilmesiyle I. Konstantin onun yerine geçti. Ertesi yıl babasının ölümü ve kendisine bağlı orduların desteği ile [[Augustus (Unvan)|Augustus]] unvanını alarak yönetimini ilan etti.
 
=== Doğumu ve "Tetrarşi" sisteminin oncesi ve kurulusuna kadar yasami ===
I. Konstantin'in tüm Roma İmparatorluğu'nun tek hâkimi olması için tam 18 yıl geçmesi gerekecekti. İmparatorluk iddiasında bulunan tetrarklardan [[Maximian]]'un 320 yılında boğdurularak öldürülmesi, [[Galerius]]'un ise 310 yılında doğal nedenlerden ölümüyle birlikte, geriye bir tek [[Maxentius]] kalmıştı. 28 Ekim 312 tarihinde Roma kentinin hemen dışındaki Milvian köprüsü'nde yapılan savaşta [[Maxentius]]'un ordusunu bozguna uğrattı. [[Maxentius]] kaçmaya çalışırken Tiber Nehri'nde öldürüldü. I. Constantinus artık Batı Roma'nın [[Augustus]]'u, Doğu'da güçsüz bir yönetim sergileyen [[Licinius]] ile birlikte iki imparatordan biridir.
 
I. Konstantin, (günümüzde [[Sırbistan]] Cumhuriyeti içinde yer alan) tarihte ise [[İlirya]] toprakları içerisinde yer alan Naissus'da ([[Niş, Sırbistan|Niş]])'da 22 Şubat 272'de doğdu. Babasi o zaman bir Romalı general olan [[I. Constantinus|Konstantius Chlorus]] idi. Annesi [[Helena (imparatoriçe)|Helena]] idi ve VI. yuzyil tarihcisi [[Propokius]]'a gore, [[Küçük Asya]] (modern [[Anadolu]]) da bulunan [[Bitinya]] eyaletinin o zaman "Drepana" adindaki kentte dogmustu. <ref>Annesi Helena'nin bu dogdugu kent ismi oğlu olan I. Konstantin tarafindan 330 yılında annesinin ölümünden sonra "Helenopolis" olarak değiştirmiştir.</ref> Bazi kaynaklar annesi Helena'nin General Konstantinius Cholorus ile evli olmayip onun cariyesi oldugunu bildirirler.
=== İç Savaş ve Augustus'luktan mutlak hakimiyete (312-324) ===
 
286'da Nicomedia'da yasayip o kenti Roma Impartorlugu'nun idare merkezi olan kullanan imparator Dioclietianuskendine yakin olan general [[Maximinus]]'u imparatorlugunun Bati kismini yonetmek uzere Roma'da Augustus rutbesi ile ortak impartorluga yukseltmisti. Konstatinus Cholorus bu sirada Roma'da [[Praetorian Prefect]] (Roma'da imparatorluk muhafızlarının lideri) idi. 291'de 19 yaşında iken Konstantin o zaman imparator [[Diocletianus]]'un yasadigi Roma Imparatorlugu'nun idari merkezi olan [[Nikomedia]]'da imparatorun hizmetine girdi. 293'de babasi Kontantinus Cholorus, Bati'yi yoneten Augustus Maximinus'u daha yakin olmak icin (daha once evli ise Helena'yi bosayarak, evli degilse onu evinden uzaklastirarak) Maximinus'un kizi Flavia Maximiana Theodora ile evlilik yapti.
 
293 yılında İmparator [[Diocletianus]] imparatorlugun idaresinde gayet buyuk bir reform yaparak Roma İmparatorluğu'nu Batı ve Doğu parçaları olarak ikiye bölerek [[Tetrarşi]] sistemini oluşturdu. Her parça bir "[[Augustus (Unvan)|Augustus]]" tarafından yönetilecekti ve onun tayin edecegi bir "Sezar" tarafından desteklenecekti. Konstantin'in babasi [[I. Constantinus|Konstantius Chlorus]] bu sistem icinde hemen en yuksek mevkilere erismeye basladi. (293 - 305 doneminden Bati'da [[Maximianus]] ile Sezar olarak; 305 - 306'da Bati'da Augustus olarak ve Dogu'da Augustus olarak [[Galerius]] imparatorluk yapti.
 
Bu arada I. Konstantin'de Tetrarsi sistemine yuksek mevkilere gecmeye basladi. Ama I. Konstantin'in tüm Roma İmparatorluğu'nun tek hâkimi olması için tam 18 yıl geçmesi gerekecekti.
 
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=== Konstantin Dogu'da ===
 
Constantine went to the court of Diocletian, where he lived as his father's heir presumptive.[47]
In the East
Head from a statue of Diocletian, Augustus of the East
 
Constantine received a formal education at Diocletian's court, where he learned Latin literature, Greek, and philosophy.[48] The cultural environment in Nicomedia was open, fluid and socially mobile, and Constantine could mix with intellectuals both pagan and Christian. He may have attended the lectures of Lactantius, a Christian scholar of Latin in the city.[49] Because Diocletian did not completely trust Constantius—none of the Tetrarchs fully trusted their colleagues—Constantine was held as something of a hostage, a tool to ensure Constantius's best behavior. Constantine was nonetheless a prominent member of the court: he fought for Diocletian and Galerius in Asia, and served in a variety of tribunates; he campaigned against barbarians on the Danube in 296 AD, and fought the Persians under Diocletian in Syria (297 AD) and under Galerius in Mesopotamia (298–299 AD).[50] By late 305 AD, he had become a tribune of the first order, a tribunus ordinis primi.[51]
 
Constantine had returned to Nicomedia from the eastern front by the spring of 303 AD, in time to witness the beginnings of Diocletian's "Great Persecution", the most severe persecution of Christians in Roman history.[52] In late 302, Diocletian and Galerius sent a messenger to the oracle of Apollo at Didyma with an inquiry about Christians.[53] Constantine could recall his presence at the palace when the messenger returned, when Diocletian accepted his court's demands for universal persecution.[54] On 23 February 303 AD, Diocletian ordered the destruction of Nicomedia's new church, condemned its scriptures to the flames, and had its treasures seized. In the months that followed, churches and scriptures were destroyed, Christians were deprived of official ranks, and priests were imprisoned.[55]
 
It is unlikely that Constantine played any role in the persecution.[56] In his later writings he would attempt to present himself as an opponent of Diocletian's "sanguinary edicts" against the "worshippers of God",[57] but nothing indicates that he opposed it effectively at the time.[58] Although no contemporary Christian challenged Constantine for his inaction during the persecutions, it remained a political liability throughout his life.[59]
 
On 1 May 305 AD, Diocletian, as a result of a debilitating sickness taken in the winter of 304–305 AD, announced his resignation. In a parallel ceremony in Milan, Maximian did the same.[60] Lactantius states that Galerius manipulated the weakened Diocletian into resigning, and forced him to accept Galerius' allies in the imperial succession. According to Lactantius, the crowd listening to Diocletian's resignation speech believed, until the very last moment, that Diocletian would choose Constantine and Maxentius (Maximian's son) as his successors.[61] It was not to be: Constantius and Galerius were promoted to Augusti, while Severus and Maximinus Daia, Galerius' nephew, were appointed their Caesars respectively. Constantine and Maxentius were ignored.[62]
 
Some of the ancient sources detail plots that Galerius made on Constantine's life in the months following Diocletian's abdication. They assert that Galerius assigned Constantine to lead an advance unit in a cavalry charge through a swamp on the middle Danube, made him enter into single combat with a lion, and attempted to kill him in hunts and wars. Constantine always emerged victorious: the lion emerged from the contest in a poorer condition than Constantine; Constantine returned to Nicomedia from the Danube with a Sarmatian captive to drop at Galerius' feet.[63] It is uncertain how much these tales can be trusted.[64]
 
=== Konstantin Bati'da ===
Constantine recognized the implicit danger in remaining at Galerius's court, where he was held as a virtual hostage. His career depended on being rescued by his father in the west. Constantius was quick to intervene.[65] In the late spring or early summer of 305 AD, Constantius requested leave for his son to help him campaign in Britain. After a long evening of drinking, Galerius granted the request. Constantine's later propaganda describes how he fled the court in the night, before Galerius could change his mind. He rode from post-house to post-house at high speed, hamstringing every horse in his wake.[66] By the time Galerius awoke the following morning, Constantine had fled too far to be caught.[67] Constantine joined his father in Gaul, at Bononia (Boulogne) before the summer of 305 AD.[68]
 
onstantine recognized the implicit danger in remaining at Galerius's court, where he was held as a virtual hostage. His career depended on being rescued by his father in the west. Constantius was quick to intervene.[65] In the late spring or early summer of 305 AD, Constantius requested leave for his son to help him campaign in Britain. After a long evening of drinking, Galerius granted the request. Constantine's later propaganda describes how he fled the court in the night, before Galerius could change his mind. He rode from post-house to post-house at high speed, hamstringing every horse in his wake.[66] By the time Galerius awoke the following morning, Constantine had fled too far to be caught.[67] Constantine joined his father in Gaul, at Bononia (Boulogne) before the summer of 305 AD.[68]
Following Galerius' recognition of Constantine as caesar, Constantine's portrait was brought to Rome, as was customary. Maxentius mocked the portrait's subject as the son of a harlot, and lamented his own powerlessness.[94] Maxentius, envious of Constantine's authority,[95] seized the title of emperor on 28 October 306 AD. Galerius refused to recognize him, but failed to unseat him. Galerius sent Severus against Maxentius, but during the campaign, Severus' armies, previously under command of Maxentius' father Maximian, defected, and Severus was seized and imprisoned.[96] Maximian, brought out of retirement by his son's rebellion, left for Gaul to confer with Constantine in late 307 AD. He offered to marry his daughter Fausta to Constantine, and elevate him to Augustan rank. In return, Constantine would reaffirm the old family alliance between Maximian and Constantius, and offer support to Maxentius' cause in Italy. Constantine accepted, and married Fausta in Trier in late summer 307 AD. Constantine now gave Maxentius his meagre support, offering Maxentius political recognition.[97]
 
Constantine remained aloof from the Italian conflict, however. Over the spring and summer of 307 AD, he had left Gaul for Britain to avoid any involvement in the Italian turmoil;[98] now, instead of giving Maxentius military aid, he sent his troops against Germanic tribes along the Rhine. In 308 AD, he raided the territory of the Bructeri, and made a bridge across the Rhine at Colonia Agrippinensium (Cologne). In 310 AD, he marched to the northern Rhine and fought the Franks. When not campaigning, he toured his lands advertising his benevolence, and supporting the economy and the arts. His refusal to participate in the war increased his popularity among his people, and strengthened his power base in the West.[99] Maximian returned to Rome in the winter of 307–308 AD, but soon fell out with his son. In early 308 AD, after a failed attempt to usurp Maxentius' title, Maximian returned to Constantine's court.[100]
 
On 11 November 308 AD, Galerius called a general council at the military city of Carnuntum (Petronell-Carnuntum, Austria) to resolve the instability in the western provinces. In attendance were Diocletian, briefly returned from retirement, Galerius, and Maximian. Maximian was forced to abdicate again and Constantine was again demoted to Caesar. Licinius, one of Galerius' old military companions, was appointed Augustus in the western regions. The new system did not last long: Constantine refused to accept the demotion, and continued to style himself as Augustus on his coinage, even as other members of the Tetrarchy referred to him as a Caesar on theirs. Maximinus Daia was frustrated that he had been passed over for promotion while the newcomer Licinius had been raised to the office of Augustus, and demanded that Galerius promote him. Galerius offered to call both Maximinus and Constantine "sons of the Augusti",[101] but neither accepted the new title. By the spring of 310 AD, Galerius was referring to both men as Augusti.[102]
 
 
305 yılında tetrarklardan [[Maximinun]]'un çekilmesiyle I. Konstantin onun yerine Bati'da Augustus oldu. Ertesi yıl 306'da babasının ölümü ve kendisine bağlı orduların desteği ile Augustus unvanını alarak Bati'da yönetimini ilan etti.
 
=== Maximinus'un ayaklanmasi==
 
A gold multiple of "Unconquered Constantine" with Sol Invictus, struck in 313 AD. The use of Sol's image stressed Constantine's status as his father's successor, appealed to the educated citizens of Gaul, and it was considered less offensive than the traditional pagan pantheon to the Christians.[103]
 
In 310 AD, a dispossessed Maximian rebelled against Constantine while Constantine was away campaigning against the Franks. Maximian had been sent south to Arles with a contingent of Constantine's army, in preparation for any attacks by Maxentius in southern Gaul. He announced that Constantine was dead, and took up the imperial purple. In spite of a large donative pledge to any who would support him as emperor, most of Constantine's army remained loyal to their emperor, and Maximian was soon compelled to leave. Constantine soon heard of the rebellion, abandoned his campaign against the Franks, and marched his army up the Rhine.[104] At Cabillunum (Chalon-sur-Saône), he moved his troops onto waiting boats to row down the slow waters of the Saône to the quicker waters of the Rhone. He disembarked at Lugdunum (Lyon).[105] Maximian fled to Massilia (Marseille), a town better able to withstand a long siege than Arles. It made little difference, however, as loyal citizens opened the rear gates to Constantine. Maximian was captured and reproved for his crimes. Constantine granted some clemency, but strongly encouraged his suicide. In July 310 AD, Maximian hanged himself.[104]
 
In spite of the earlier rupture in their relations, Maxentius was eager to present himself as his father's devoted son after his death.[106] He began minting coins with his father's deified image, proclaiming his desire to avenge Maximian's death.[107] Constantine initially presented the suicide as an unfortunate family tragedy. By 311 AD, however, he was spreading another version. According to this, after Constantine had pardoned him, Maximian planned to murder Constantine in his sleep. Fausta learned of the plot and warned Constantine, who put a eunuch in his own place in bed. Maximian was apprehended when he killed the eunuch and was offered suicide, which he accepted.[108] Along with using propaganda, Constantine instituted a damnatio memoriae on Maximian, destroying all inscriptions referring to him and eliminating any public work bearing his image.[109]
 
The death of Maximian required a shift in Constantine's public image. He could no longer rely on his connection to the elder emperor Maximian, and needed a new source of legitimacy.[110] In a speech delivered in Gaul on 25 July 310 AD, the anonymous orator reveals a previously unknown dynastic connection to Claudius II, a 3rd Century emperor famed for defeating the Goths and restoring order to the empire. Breaking away from tetrarchic models, the speech emphasizes Constantine's ancestral prerogative to rule, rather than principles of imperial equality. The new ideology expressed in the speech made Galerius and Maximian irrelevant to Constantine's right to rule.[111] Indeed, the orator emphasizes ancestry to the exclusion of all other factors: "No chance agreement of men, nor some unexpected consequence of favor, made you emperor," the orator declares to Constantine.[112]
 
The oration also moves away from the religious ideology of the Tetrarchy, with its focus on twin dynasties of Jupiter and Hercules. Instead, the orator proclaims that Constantine experienced a divine vision of Apollo and Victory granting him laurel wreaths of health and a long reign. In the likeness of Apollo Constantine recognized himself as the saving figure to whom would be granted "rule of the whole world",[113] as the poet Virgil had once foretold.[114] The oration's religious shift is paralleled by a similar shift in Constantine's coinage. In his early reign, the coinage of Constantine advertised Mars as his patron. From 310 AD on, Mars was replaced by Sol Invictus, a god conventionally identified with Apollo.[115] There is little reason to believe that either the dynastic connection or the divine vision are anything other than fiction, but their proclamation strengthened Constantine's claims to legitimacy and increased his popularity among the citizens of Gaul.[116]
İmparatorluk iddiasında bulunan tetrarklardan [[Maximian]]'un 320 yılında boğdurularak öldürülmesi, [[Galerius]]'un ise 310 yılında doğal nedenlerden ölümüyle birlikte, geriye bir tek Bati'da tek augustus olarak [[Maxentius]] kaldı. Dogu'da ise Licinius Augustius olarak imparatordu. I. Konstantin bir ic savas baslatarak tek imparator olmaya yola cikti
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=== Konstatin'in ic savaslari ===
 
{{I. Konstantin Şavaşları kutusu}}
 
==== Maxtentius ile muharebeler ve onu elimne edilmsi====
İmparatorluğun doğu kısmında yönetimini sürdüren [[Licinius]], artık Batı Roma'nın imparatoru olan I. Konstantin'in baba-bir kızkardeşi [[Flavia Julia Constantia]] ile evlenerek I. Konstantin ile kardeşlik bağı kurdu. Bu kayin-biraderlik ilişkisi bir yandan kendisine bir koruma sağlarken, öte yandan her iki imparatora diğerinin bölgesi üzerinde hak iddia etme şansını tanıyordu.
 
Once Bati'da Augustus olan Maxentius ile catismalara giristi.
 
28 Ekim 312 tarihinde Roma kentinin hemen dışındaki Milvian köprüsü'nde yapılan savaşta [[Maxentius]]'un ordusunu bozguna uğrattı. [[Maxentius]] kaçmaya çalışırken Tiber Nehri'nde öldürüldü
 
=== Licinius ile ic savas ve mutlak hakimiyet ==.
 
İmparatorluğun doğu kısmında yönetimini sürdüren [[Licinius]], artık Batı Roma'nın imparatoru olan I. Konstantin'in baba-bir (ama annesi "Flavia Maximiana Theodora" olan) kızkardeşi [[Flavia Julia Constantia]] ile evlenerek I. Konstantin ile kardeşlik bağı kurdu. Bu kayin-biraderlik ilişkisi bir yandan kendisine bir koruma sağlarken, öte yandan her iki imparatora diğerinin bölgesi üzerinde hak iddia etme şansını tanıyordu.
 
İlk hamleyi yapan [[Licinius]] oldu. [[Licinius]]'un I. Konstantin'a yönelik bir komploya karıştığının anlaşılmasıyla (314), iç savaş çıktı. Konstantin'in orduları karşısında [[Licinius]] once Italya'da ve sonra çekildigği doğuda peşpeşe yaplılan kara ve deniz muharebelerinde yenilgiler aldı.
 
=== Konstantinopolis'in kuruluşu (330) ===
 
[[Licinius]]'un yenilmesiyle birlikte, I. Konstantin İskoçya'dan Kızıldeniz'e, Fas'tan Dicle Irmağı'na kadar uzanan büyük bir imparatorluğun tek hâkimi olmuştu. Ancak 4. yüzyıla gelindiğinde zenginliğin kaynağı Doğu'dan, Mısır ve Küçük Asya üzerinden yapılan ticaretten geliyordu. Efsanelere göre Megaralı Byzas tarafından MÖ 667 yılında kurulan Byzantium'un eşsiz konumu, I. Konstantin'in dikkatinden kaçmamıştı. Burası, Pontus Euxinus (Karadeniz) ve Asya'dan geçen ticaret yollarının büyük kısmını kontrol edebilecek bir noktaydı.
 
 
=== İmar Çalışmaları ===
 
Roma İmparatorluğu'nun başkentini [[Byzantium]] kentine taşıtan I. Konstantin, tarihin en büyük kentsel gelişim planlarından birini hazırladı. MS 330 yılından 337'ye kadar olan yedi yıllık süreç içinde tam bir şantiye alanına dönen kentte; çok sayıda dini bina, yeni yol ve su kemeri inşa edildi. Sultanahmet'te bugün "At Meydanı" olarak yerde bulunan [[Hippodromos]], I. Konstantin döneminde genişletilerek bugünkü boyutlarına ulaştı. 100.000 kişinin oturabileceği boyutlarda inşa edilen [[Hippodromos]]'un tribünlerine ait parçalar İstanbul Arkeoloji Müzesi'nde korunuyor olup, Spina'sında yer alan sütunlardan üçü ([[Tutmosis Sütunu]], [[Yılanlı Sütun]] ve [[Örme Dikilitaş]]) hâlâ ayaktadır.
 
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