"Aleksandr İzvolski" sayfasının sürümleri arasındaki fark

 
Historiography has traditionally laid most blame for the annexation crisis at the Austrian Aehrenthal's door. The historian [[Chris Clark (historian)|Christopher Clark]] however, in his 2012 study of the causes of the [[First World War]] ''The Sleepwalkers'', has challenged this view "the evidence suggests that the crisis took the course it did because Izvolsky lied in the most extravagant fashion in order to save his job and reputation. The Russian foreign minister had made two serious errors of judgement [firstly] that London would support his demand for the opening of the Turkish Straits to Russian warships - [and] he grossly underestimated the impact of the annexation on Russian nationalist opinion - [when] - he got wind of the press response in St Petersburg, he realized his error, panicked, and began to construct himself as Aehrenthal's dupe." <ref>Clark, The Sleepwalkers, p.86</ref> The years following the annexation crisis, in an atmosphere of increased 'chauvinist popular emotion', and with a sense of humiliation in a sphere of vital interest, saw the Russians launch a substantial programme of military investment.<ref>Clark, The Sleepwalkers, p.87; David Stevenson, Armaments and the Coming of War, Oxford 1996, pp. 162-63</ref>
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== Sonraki yaşamı ==
1910'da Paris'te büyükelçi olduktan sonra İzvolski, Rusya'nın Fransa ve İngiltere ile olan bağlarını güçlendirmek ve Rus silahlanmasını teşvik etmek için elinden gelen enerjiyi adamıştır. [[I. Dünya Savaşı]] patlak verdiğinde, "C'est ma guerre!" ("Bu benim savaşım!") yorumuyla ünlenmiştir.
 
[[Şubat Devrimi]]'nden sonra İzvolski istifa etmiş ancak yerine [[Vasily Maklakov]] atandığı Paris'te kalmıştır. Müttefiklerin Rus İç Savaşı'ndaki müdahalesini savundu ve Ağustos 1919'da [[Biarritz]]'deki ani ölümünden önce bir [[anı]] kitabı yazıyordu.
== Later life ==
Upon becoming ambassador in Paris in 1910, Izvolsky devoted his energies to strengthening Russia's bonds with France and Britain and encouraging Russian rearmament. When [[World War I]] broke out, he is reputed to have remarked, "C'est ma guerre!" ("This is my war!").
 
After the [[February Revolution]] Izvolsky resigned but remained in Paris, where he was succeeded by [[Vasily Maklakov]]. He advocated the [[Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War]] and wrote a book of [[memoirs]] before his sudden death in [[Biarritz]] in August 1919.
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== Ailesi ==
İzvolski, Marguerite Carlovna, ya da Kontes Toll ile evlendi. Sarayda nüfuzu olan Baltık Almanı büyük cazibesine, [[Rusça]] bilmemesi engeldi. [[Çanakkale]]'de oğlu savaştı. Kızları Hélène İzvolski, Rus Katolik Kilisesi'ne kabul edildi ve ilk önce [[Fransa]]'da ve sonra [[Birleşik Devletler]]'de tanınmış bir bilim adamı oldu.
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