"2013 Mısır askerî darbesi" sayfasının sürümleri arasındaki fark

değişiklik özeti yok
{{Sivil çatışma bilgi kutusu
== Arka plan ==
{{Further|2011 Egyptian revolution|Aftermath of the 2011 Egyptian revolution|2012–13 Egyptian protests}}
Müdahalenin yaşanmasından sonra Mısır'da parlamento görevini gören Şura Meclisi feshedildi, [[Muhammed Mursi]] ev hapsine mahkum edildi. Müdahale sonucu ülkeyi yönetmek için [[Milli Güvenlik Konseyi]] niteliği taşıyan [[Mısır Silahlı Kuvvetleri Yüksek Konseyi]] kuruldu.
[[File:Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel meets with Egyptian President Mohamed Morsy in Cairo, Egypt, April 24, 2013.jpg|thumb|right|[[Mohamed Morsi|Then President Mohamed Morsi]] (right) and [[Abdul Fatah al-Sisi|General al-Sisi]] (left) listen to visiting U.S. Secretary of Defense [[Chuck Hagel]] (center), during a meeting with U.S. officials on April 24, 2013. Al-Sisi, chosen by Morsi to be the first post-[[Hosni Mubarak|Mubarak]] era Defense Minister,<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-19256730|title=Profile: Egypt armed forces chief Abdul Fattah al-Sisi|publisher=BBC News|date=2013-07-03|accessdate=2013-07-05}}</ref> would later sanction the removal of Morsi.]]
In February 2011, [[Hosni Mubarak]] was ousted after [[2011 Egyptian revolution|18 days of mass demonstrations]] that ended [[History of Egypt under Hosni Mubarak|his 29-year rule of Egypt]]. In June 2012, Mohamed Morsi won the [[Egyptian presidential election, 2012|presidential election]] to become the first democratically elected president of Egypt.<ref name=Hauslohner/><ref>{{cite web|last=Khalil |first=Ashraf |url=http://world.time.com/2013/07/03/egypts-military-ousts-democratically-elected-president-morsi-angering-his-islamist-supporters/ |title=Egypt: President Morsi's Ouster Angers Islamist Supporters |publisher=World.time.com |date=2013-06-30 |accessdate=2013-07-06}}</ref><ref name=Lederman>{{cite web|last=Lederman |first=Josh |url=http://www.edmontonjournal.com/news/Pentagon+Secretary+Hagel+calls+Egyptian+defence+minister/8611323/story.html |title=Egypt's future uncertain, US takes cautious approach and urges quick return to elected govt |publisher=Edmontonjournal.com |date=2013-07-02 |accessdate=2013-07-06}}</ref> His rule has been subject to ongoing [[2012–13 Egyptian protests|protests]].
In November 2012, following the protests against the controversial [[Muslim Brotherhood in post-Mubarak electoral politics of Egypt#President Morsi's temporary assumption of full constitutional power and push for new constitution|Constitutional Declaration]] by Morsi, opposition politicians - including [[Mohamed ElBaradei]], [[Amr Moussa]] and [[Hamdeen Sabahi]], according to the [[The Wall Street Journal|Wall Street Journal]] - started holding confidential meetings with army leaders, in order to discuss ways of removing President Morsi.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324425204578601700051224658.html|title=In Egypt, the 'Deep State' Rises Again|publisher=The Wall Street Journal|date=12 July 2013|accessdate=15 July 2013}}</ref>
On 28 April 2013, [[Tamarod]] was started as a grassroots movement to collect 15 million signatures to remove Morsi by 30 June. They called for peaceful demonstrations across Egypt especially in front of the Presidential Palace in Cairo.<ref>{{Cite news|title=Egypt's 'Rebel' campaign gathered 22 mn signatures, says spokesman|url=http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/75244/Egypt/Politics-/Egypts-Rebel-campaign-gathered--mn-signatures,-say.aspx|agency=Ahram Online|date=29 June 2013|accessdate=29 June 2013}}</ref> The movement was supported by the [[National Salvation Front (Egypt)|National Salvation Front]], [[April 6 Youth Movement]] and [[Strong Egypt Party]].<ref>{{Cite news|title=Reactions vary to the Rebel movement’s 30 June plans|url=http://www.dailynewsegypt.com/2013/06/05/reactions-vary-to-tamarods-30-june-plans/|agency=Daily News Egypt|date=5 June 2013|accessdate=13 June 2013}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|title=Strong Egypt Party supports protest on 30 June, opposes military coup|url=http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/74273/Egypt/Politics-/Strong-Egypt-Party-supports-protest-on--June,-oppo.aspx|agency=Ahram Online|date=18 June 2013|accessdate=18 June 2013}}</ref>
At a conference on 15 June, Morsi called for [[Foreign involvement in the Syrian civil war|foreign intervention in Syria]].<ref name="No-fly-zone">{{Cite news |title=Egyptian president cuts ties with Syria and calls for no-fly zone over country |agency=Reuters |newspaper=The Guardian |date=15 June 2013 |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/jun/15/egypt-mohamed-morsi-cuts-ties-with-syria }}</ref> According to Yasser El-Shimy, an analyst with the [[International Crisis Group]], this statement crossed "a national security red line." The army rebuked this statement the next day by stating that its only role was to guard Egypt's borders. Although the [[Egyptian constitution]] ostensibly declares the president as the supreme commander of the armed forces, the Egyptian military is independent of civilian control.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.irishtimes.com/news/world/africa/morsi-role-at-syria-rally-seen-as-tipping-point-for-egypt-army-1.1450612 |title=Morsi role at Syria rally seen as tipping point for Egypt army |work=The Irish Times |date=2 July 2013 |accessdate=3 July 2013}}</ref>
As the first anniversary of Morsi's presidential inauguration approached in 2013, his supporters such as the [[National Coalition for Supporting Legitimacy]] started demonstrations at multiple places including [[El-Hossari Mosque]], [[El-Nahda Square]], outside [[Cairo University]], outside Al-Rayan Mosque in the posh suburb of Maadi, and in [[Ain Shams]] district. They had started open-ended rallies<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.focac.org/eng/zjfz/fzsz/t1054696.htm |title=17 gunmen arrested before reaching pro-Morsi protest in Egypt |publisher=Focac.org |accessdate=3 July 2013}}</ref> The largest protest was planned for 30 June.<ref name="human">{{cite web|url=http://www.humanevents.com/2013/07/03/pro-morsi-terrorists-threaten-christians-against-protesting/ |title=Pro-Morsi Terrorists Threaten Christians against Protesting |publisher=Humanevents.com |accessdate=3 July 2013}}</ref>
== Olayların gelişimi ==