Parahoxozoa

klad
(ParaHoxozoa sayfasından yönlendirildi)

ParaHoxozoa (veya Parahoxozoa), Bilateria, Placozoa, ve Cnidaria'dan oluşan bir hayvan kladıdır.[2] Bu kladın diğer iki hayvan soyu olan Ctenophora ve Porifera ile ilişkisi tartışmalıdır. Bazı filogenomik çalışmalar, Ctenophora'nın Parahoxozoa'nın kardeş grubu, Porifera'nın da diğer hayvanlarla kardeş grubu olduğunu destekleyen kanıtlar sunmuştur (örn.[3][4][5][6][7][8]). Bazı araştırmalar, Porifera'nın Parahoxozoa'nın ve Ctenophora'nın diğer hayvanların kardeş grubu olduğunu destekleyen kanıtlar sunmuştur (örn.[9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]).

ParaHoxozoa
Yaşadığı dönem aralığı: 605,2-0 Ma
Ediyakaran-Günümüz 
Trichoplax adhaerens photograph.png
Bilimsel sınıflandırma Bu sınıflandırmayı düzenle
Âlem: Animalia
Alt âlem: Eumetazoa
Klad: ParaHoxozoa
Ryan vd., 2010[1]
Kladlar

Bu filogenomik çalışmaların büyük çoğunluğu ile uyumlu olan aşağıdaki ağaç, bu belirsizliği bir politomi ile aktarmaktadır.

Choanozoa

ChoanoflagellataCronoflagelado2.svg

Animalia

CtenophoraMertensia ovum.png

Porifera Reef3859 - Flickr - NOAA Photo Library.jpg

Parahoxozoa

PlacozoaTrichoplax adhaerens photograph.png

Planulozoa

CnidariaMedusae of world-vol03 fig360 Atolla chuni.jpg

BilateriaAcrodipsas brisbanensis.jpg

KarakteristikDüzenle

Parahoxozoa, kladın adını aldığı Hox/ParaHox-ANTP'nin yanı sıra, birkaç gen altsınıfının (HNF, CUT, PROS, ZF, CERS, K50, S50-PRD) varlığıyla da tanımlandı. Daha sonra Hox/ParaHox, NK geni ve Cdx Parahox geninin aynı sınıfta (ANTP) ve sünger olan Porifera'da mevcut olduğu iddia edildi.[25][26][27] ParaHox geninin kesin olarak tanımlanıp tanımlanmadığına bakılmaksızın, Parahoxozoa, orijinal olarak tanımlandığı gibi monofiletik olduğundan bu şekilde kullanılmaya devam eder.[28]

Planula-acoel, triploblasti, ve bilateria benzerlikleriDüzenle

Orijinal Bilateria'nın, tek vücut açıklığına sahip, dipte yaşayan bir solucan olduğu varsayılmaktadır.[29] Bununla birlikte, Ctenophora ile içten bir gelişmişlik de olabilir.[30] İç-bağırsak, dudakların kaynaşmasıyla tek bir açıklığın köşelerinden gelişmiş de olabilir. Örneğin: Acoela, bazı bilaterian simetrilerini sergileyen bazı Cnidaria'ların planula larvalarına benzer. Tıpkı Cnidarian Buddenbrockia'nın[31][32][33] olduğu gibi vermiformdur ve Placozoa'nın planulayla benzerlikler kaydedilmiştir.[34] Genellikle, "Planulozoa", Placozoa'nın dışında tutulur, ancak her zaman geçerli değildir. Bu konuda Parahoxozoa ile eş anlamlı görünmektedir.[35] Ayrıca, Triploblasti'de Cnidara-Bilateria radyasyonundan önce gelişmiştir.[36]

KaynakçaDüzenle

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