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Sıra dışı ölümler listesi

Bu sıra dışı ölümler listesi, tarih boyunca kaydedilen ve birçok kaynak tarafından olağandışı olduğu belirtilen benzersiz veya son derece nadir ölüm durumlarını içerir.

Antik dönemDüzenle

Kişinin adı Resim Ölüm tarihi Açıklama
Atinalı Drakon y. MÖ 620 Atinalı bir parlamenter olan Drakon'un, Egine'deki bir tiyatroda kendisini takdir eden vatandaşlar tarafından üzerine atılan palto ve şapkalardan dolayı boğularak öldüğü bildirilmiştir. [1][2]
Şarondas Late 7th to early 5th century BC Şarondas Sicilyalı bir Yunan kanun koyucuydu. [3][4] Tarihçi Diodoros'a göre, Meclise silah getiren herkesin idam edilmesi gerektiğine dair bir yasa çıkardı. [3][4][5] Bir gün kırsal kesimdeki bazı haydutları yenmek için yardım arayarak Meclis'e geldi, fakat bu esnada kemerine bir bıçak takılıydı. [3][4] Durumu fark etti ve kendi koyduğu kanunu korumak için yanındaki bıçak ile intihar etti.[3][4][5]
Arrhichion of Phigalia 564 BC Arrichion of Phigalia, a Greek pankratiast, caused his own death during the Olympic finals. Held by his unidentified opponent in a stranglehold and unable to free himself, Arrichion kicked his opponent, causing him so much pain from a foot/ankle injury that the opponent made the sign of defeat to the umpires, but at the same time broke Arrichion's neck. Since the opponent had conceded defeat, Arrichion was proclaimed the victor posthumously.[6][7]
Sisamnes c. 525 BC According to Herodotus, Sisamnes was a corrupt judge under Cambyses II of Persia. He accepted a bribe and delivered an unjust verdict. As a result, the king had him arrested and flayed alive. His skin was then used to cover the seat in which his son would sit in judgment.[8][9]
Pythagoras of Samos y. 495 BC Ancient sources disagree on how the Greek philosopher Pythagoras died,[10][11] but one late and probably apocryphal legend reported by both Diogenes Laërtius, a third-century AD biographer of famous philosophers, and Iamblichus, a Neoplatonist philosopher, states that Pythagoras was murdered by his political enemies.[11] Supposedly, he almost managed to outrun them,[11] but he came to a bean field and refused to run through it because he had prohibited beans as ritually unclean.[12][11] Since cutting through the field would violate his own teachings, Pythagoras simply stopped running and was killed.[11] This story may have been fabricated by Neanthes of Cyzicus, on whom both Diogenes and Iamblichus rely as a source.[11]
Heraclitus of Ephesus y. 475 BC According to one account given by Diogenes Laërtius, the Greek philosopher Heraclitus was said to have been devoured by dogs after smearing himself with cow manure in an attempt to cure his dropsy.[13][14]
Themistocles y. 459 BC Themistocles, the Athenian general who won the Battle of Salamis, actually died of natural causes in exile,[15][16] but was widely rumored to have committed suicide by drinking bull's blood.[15][16][17][18] Since bull's blood is not actually poisonous,[16] Themistocles cannot have died in this way,[16] but the legend is widely retold in classical sources.[16] The early twentieth-century English classicist Percy Gardner proposed that the story about him drinking bull's blood may have been based on an ignorant misunderstanding of a statue showing Themistocles in a heroic pose, holding a cup as an offering to the gods.[16] The comedic playwright Aristophanes references Themistocles drinking bull's blood in his comedy The Knights (performed in 324 BC) as the most heroic way for a man to die.[16][19]
Aeschylus y. 455 BC According to Valerius Maximus, Aeschylus, the eldest of the three great Athenian tragedians, was killed by a tortoise dropped by an eagle that had mistaken his bald head for a rock suitable for shattering the shell of the reptile. Pliny, in his Naturalis Historiæ, adds that Aeschylus had been staying outdoors to avert a prophecy that he would be killed by a falling object.[20][21][22]
Empedocles of Akragas y. 430 BC Empedocles of Acragas was a Pre-Socratic philosopher from the island of Sicily, who, in one of his surviving poems, declares himself to have become a "divine being... no longer mortal".[23] According to Diogenes Laërtius, he tried to prove he was an immortal god by leaping into Mount Etna, an active volcano.[24][25] This legend is also alluded to by the Roman poet Horace.[26]
Sophocles y. 406 BC A number of "remarkable" legends concerning the death of Sophocles, another of the three great Athenian tragedians, are recorded in the late antique Life of Sophocles.[20] According to one legend, he choked to death on an unripe grape.[20] Another says that he died of joy after hearing that his last play had been victorious.[20] A third account reports that he died of suffocation after reading aloud a lengthy monologue from the end of his play Antigone without pausing to take a breath for commas or punctuation.[20]
Mithridates 401 BC Mithridates, a Persian soldier who embarrassed his king, Artaxerxes II, by boasting of killing his rival, Cyrus the Younger (who was the brother of Artaxerxes II), was executed by scaphism. The king's physician, Ctesias, reported that Mithridates survived the insect torture for 17 days.[27][28]
Democritus of Abdera y. 370 BC According to Diogenes Laërtius, the Greek Atomist philosopher Democritus of Abdera died at the age of 109;[29][30] as he was on his deathbed, his sister was greatly worried because she needed to fulfill her religious obligations to the goddess Artemis in the approaching three-day Thesmophoria festival.[29][30] Democritus told her to place a loaf of warm bread under his nose[29][30] and was able to survive for the three days of the festival by sniffing it.[29][30] He died immediately after the festival was over.[29][30]
Antiphanes c. 310 BC Antiphanes was a renowned comic poet of the Middle Attic comedy. The Suda claims he died after being struck by a pear.[31][32]
Agathocles of Syracuse 289 BC Agathocles, a Greek tyrant of Syracuse, was murdered with a poisoned toothpick.[33]
Philitas of Cos y. 270 BC Philitas of Cos, a Greek intellectual, is said by Athenaeus to have studied arguments and erroneous word usage so intensely that he wasted away and starved to death.[34] British classicist Alan Cameron speculates that Philitas died from a wasting disease which his contemporaries joked was caused by his pedantry.[35]
Qin Shi Huang 10 September 210 BC Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China, whose artifacts and treasures include the Terracotta Army, died after ingesting several pills of mercury in the belief that it would grant him eternal life.[36][37][38]
Chrysippus of Soli y. 206 BC One ancient account of the death of Chrysippus, a third-century BC Greek Stoic philosopher, tells that he died of laughter after he saw a donkey eating his figs; he told a slave to give the donkey neat wine to drink to wash them down with, and then, "...having laughed too much, he died" (Diogenes Laërtius 7.185).[39]
Eleazar Avaran y. 163 BC Eleazar Avaran was the brother of Judas Maccabeus. According to 1 Maccabees 6:46, in battle, he thrust his spear into the belly of a king's war elephant, which collapsed and fell on top of Eleazar, killing him instantly.[40]
Porcia Catonis June 43 to October 42 BC The daughter of Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis and second wife of Marcus Junius Brutus, according to ancient historians such as Cassius Dio and Appian, killed herself by swallowing hot coals.[41] Modern historians find this tale implausible.[42]
Claudius Drusus c. 20 AD According to Suetonius, Claudius Drusus, the eldest son of the future Roman emperor Claudius, died while playing. Having tossed a pear high in the air, when it came back, he caught it in his mouth but he choked on it, dying of asphyxia.[43]
Tiberius 16 March 37 AD The Roman emperor Tiberius died in Misenum at the age of seventy-eight. According to Tacitus, the emperor appeared to have died and Caligula, who was at Tiberius' villa, was being congratulated on his succession to the empire, when news arrived that the emperor had revived and was recovering his faculties. Those who had moments before recognized Caligula as Augustus fled in fear of the emperor's wrath, while Macro, a prefect of the Praetorian Guard, took advantage of the chaos to have Tiberius smothered with his own bedclothes, definitively killing him.[44]
Simon the Zealot 1st century AD According to an ancient tradition, Simon, an apostle of Jesus, was sawn in half in Persia.[45]
Saint Lawrence 258 AD The deacon Saint Lawrence was roasted alive on a giant grill during the persecution of Valerian.[46][47] Prudentius tells that he joked with his tormentors, "Turn me over—I'm done on this side".[48] He is now the patron saint of cooks, chefs and comedians.[49]

Orta ÇağlarDüzenle

RönesansDüzenle

Erken modern dönemDüzenle

19. yüzyılDüzenle

20. yüzyılDüzenle

21'inci yüzyılDüzenle

Ayrıca bakınızDüzenle

KaynakçaDüzenle

  1. ^ Suidas. "GrekçeΔράκων 3 Kasım 2015 tarihinde Wayback Machine sitesinde arşivlendi.", Suda On Line, Adler number delta, 1495.
  2. ^ Bruce Felton; Mark Fowler (1985). "Most Unusual Death". Felton & Fowler's Best, Worst, and Most Unusual. Random House. s. 161. ISBN 978-0-517-46297-3. 
  3. ^ a b c d Murray, Alexander (2007). Suicide in the Middle Ages: Volume 2: The Curse on Self-Murder. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. s. 128. ISBN 978-0-19-820731-3. 
  4. ^ a b c d McGlew, James F. (1993). Tyranny and Political Culture in Ancient Greece. Ithaca, New York and London, England: Cornell University Press. ss. 108–109. ISBN 978-0-8014-8387-5. 
  5. ^ a b Groebner, Valentin (2002) [2000]. Carras, Ruth Mazo; Peters, Edward (Edl.). Liquid Assets, Dangerous Gifts: Presents and Politics at the End of the Middle Ages. The Middle Ages Series. Selwyn, Pamela E. tarafından çevrildi. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. s. 131. ISBN 978-0-8122-3650-7. 
  6. ^ Brett Matlock; Jesse Matlock (2011). "The Salt Lake Loonie". University of Regina Press: 81. 
  7. ^ EN Gardiner (1906). "The Journal of Hellenic Studies". Nature. 124 (3117): 121. Bibcode:1929Natur.124..121.. doi:10.1038/124121a0. Fatal accidents did occur as in the case of Arrhichion, but they were very rare... 
  8. ^ "Perseus Under Philologic: Hdt. 5.25.1". perseus.uchicago.edu. Erişim tarihi: 30 May 2019. 
  9. ^ Baldi, Dino (2010). Morti favolose degli antichi. Macerata: Quodlibet. s. 213. ISBN 9788874623372. 
  10. ^ Burkert, Walter (1972). Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. s. 117. ISBN 978-0-674-53918-1. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f Simoons, Frederick J. (1998). Plants of Life, Plants of Death. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. ss. 225–228. ISBN 978-0-299-15904-7. 
  12. ^ Zhmud, Leonid (2012). Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans. Windle, Kevin; Ireland, Rosh tarafından çevrildi. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ss. 137, 200. ISBN 978-0-19-928931-8. 
  13. ^ Fair weather, Janet (1973). "Death of Heraclitus". s. 2. 6 November 2017 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. 
  14. ^ Wanley, Nathaniel; Johnston, William (1806). "Chapter XXVIII: Of the different and unusual Ways by which some Men have come to their Deaths §6". Book I: Which treats of the Perfections, Powers, Capacities, Defects, Imperfections, and Deformities of the Body of Man. The Wonders of the Little World; Or, A General History of Man: Displaying the Various Faculties, Capacities, Powers and Defects of the Human Body and Mind, in Many Thousand Most Interesting Relations of Persons Remarkable for Bodily Perfections or Defects; Collected from the Writings of the Most Approved Historians, Philosophers, and Physicians, of All Ages and Countries. 1 (A new bas.). London. s. 111. ASIN B001F3H1XA. LCCN 07003035. OCLC 847968918. OL 7188480M. 29 August 2016 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. Heracltius, the Ephesian, fell into a dropsy, and was thereupon advised by the physicians to anoint himself all over with cow‑dung, and so to sit in the warm sun; his servant had left him alone, and the dogs, supposing him to be a wild beast, fell upon him, and killed him. 
  15. ^ a b Thucydides I, 138 5 Nisan 2008[Tarih uyuşmuyor] tarihinde Wayback Machine sitesinde arşivlendi.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Marr, John (October 1995). "The Death of Themistocles". Greece & Rome. 42 (2): 159–167. doi:10.1017/S0017383500025614. JSTOR 643228. 
  17. ^ Plutarch Themistocles, 31 3 Mart 2008[Tarih uyuşmuyor] tarihinde Wayback Machine sitesinde arşivlendi.
  18. ^ Diodorus XI, 58 24 Eylül 2008[Tarih uyuşmuyor] tarihinde Wayback Machine sitesinde arşivlendi.
  19. ^ Aristophanes 84–85 11 Haziran 2015[Tarih uyuşmuyor] tarihinde Wayback Machine sitesinde arşivlendi.
  20. ^ a b c d e McKeown, J. C. (2013). A Cabinet of Greek Curiosities: Strange Tales and Surprising Facts from the Cradle of Western Civilization. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ss. 136–137. ISBN 978-0-19-998210-3. 
  21. ^ La tortue d'Eschyle et autres morts stupides de l'Histoire, Editions Les Arènes, 2012, ISBN 9782352042211 
  22. ^ Pliny the Elder, "chapter 3", Naturalis Historiæ, Book X 
  23. ^ Gregory, Andrew (2013). The Presocratics and the Supernatural: Magic, Philosophy and Science in Early Greece. New York City, New York and London, England: Bloomsbury Academic. s. 178. ISBN 978-1-4725-0416-6. 
  24. ^ Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 69 5 Ocak 2017[Tarih uyuşmuyor] tarihinde Wayback Machine sitesinde arşivlendi.
  25. ^ Meyer, T. H. (2016). Barefoot Through Burning Lava: On Sicily, the Island of Cain – An Esoteric Travelogue (İngilizce). Temple Lodge Publishing. ISBN 9781906999940. Erişim tarihi: 11 September 2017. 
  26. ^ Horace, Ars Poetica, 465–466
  27. ^ Jamie Frater (2010). "10 truly bizarre deaths". Listverse.Com's Ultimate Book of Bizarre Lists. Ulysses Press. ss. 12–14. ISBN 978-1-56975-817-5.  Geçersiz |chapter-url-access=registration (yardım)
  28. ^ J. C. McKeown (2013). A Cabinet of Greek Curiosities: Strange Tales and Surprising Facts from the Cradle of Western Civilization. Oxford University Press. s. 102. ISBN 978-0-19-998212-7. Ctesias, the Greek physician to Artaxerxes, the king of Persia, gives an appallingly detailed description of the execution inflicted on a soldier named Mithridates, who was misguided enough to claim the credit for killing the king's brother, Cyrus... 
  29. ^ a b c d e McKeown, J. C. (2013). A Cabinet of Greek Curiosities: Strange Tales and Surprising Facts from the Cradle of Western Civilization. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. s. 157. ISBN 978-0-19-998210-3. 
  30. ^ a b c d e Diogenes Laërtius, ix.43 5 Ocak 2017[Tarih uyuşmuyor] tarihinde Wayback Machine sitesinde arşivlendi.
  31. ^ Suda α 2735.
  32. ^ Baldi, Dino (2010). Morti favolose degli antichi (Italian). Macerata: Quodlibet. s. 50. ISBN 9788874623372. 
  33. ^ "Let Us Now Praise the Romantic, Artful, Versatile Toothpick". Smithsonian. 
  34. ^ Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae, 9.401e.
  35. ^ Alan Cameron (1991). "How thin was Philitas?". The Classical Quarterly. 41 (2): 534–538. doi:10.1017/S0009838800004717. 
  36. ^ Wright, David Curtis (2001). The History of China. Greenwood Publishing Group. s. 49. ISBN 978-0-313-30940-3. 
  37. ^ The First Emperor. Oxford University Press. 2007. ss. 82, 150. ISBN 978-0-19-152763-0.  Geçersiz |url-erişimi=registration (yardım)
  38. ^ Nate Hopper (4 February 2013). "Royalty and their Strange Deaths". Esquire. 19 November 2013 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. 
  39. ^ Laertius, Diogenes (1965). Lives, Teachings and Sayings of the Eminent Philosophers, with an English translation by R.D. Hicks. Cambridge, Mass/London: Harvard UP/W. Heinemann Ltd. 
  40. ^ "The Funniest And Weirdest Ways People Have Actually Died –". visual.ly. 30 April 2017 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. 
  41. ^ Cassius Dio, xlvii 49. Appian, Bellum Civile iv 136.
  42. ^ Church, Alfred J. (1883). Roman Life in the Days of Cicero. London: Seeley, Jackson, & Halliday. 
  43. ^ Tranquillus, Gaius Suetonius. The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. 
  44. ^ "LacusCurtius • Tacitus, Annals – Book VI Chapters 28–51". penelope.uchicago.edu. Erişim tarihi: 30 May 2019. 
  45. ^ Il Grande Dizionario dei Santi e dei Beati (Italian). 4. Rome: Finegil Editoriale/Federico Motta Editore. 2006. ss. 217–218. 
  46. ^ Catholic Online. "St. Lawrence – Martyr". 4 January 2018 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. 
  47. ^ "Saint Lawrence of Rome". CatholicSaints.Info. 26 October 2008. 14 February 2015 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. 
  48. ^ Nigel Jonathan Spivey (2001), Enduring Creation: Art, Pain, and Fortitude, University of California Press, s. 42, ISBN 978-0-520-23022-4 
  49. ^ The Encyclopedia Americana, 17, 1981, s. 85, ISBN 978-0-7172-0112-9 

Dış bağlantılarDüzenle