"Antik Roma yolları" sayfasının sürümleri arasındaki fark

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[[Dosya:Metopa Columna lui Traian Constructie drum.jpg|thumb|250px|right|[[Roma]]da Trajan'in Sütunu anıtında yol yapımı gösterimi.]]
'''Antik Roma yollari''' [[Roma İmparatorluğu]]'nun buyuyup gelismesinde zorunlu bir unsur olmusdu. Bu yollar nedeniyle Romalilar ordulari icin emniyetle ve hizla buyuk alanlar icinde hareket alani saglamislardir. Bu yollar ayni zamanda haberlesme iletisim icin elzem olmuslardir. Iktisadi bakimdan ise antik Roma yollari Roma yiyecek ve emtia ticaretinin gelismesinde ve cok genis bir alanda Roma mallarinin yayilip dagiltila bilmesine yol acmistir. Roma imparatorlugu'nun en paralak zamanlarinda antik Roma yollari agi 85.004 km ik karayollarini kapsmaktaydi ve 372 baglantidain olusmaktaydi.
Latince ''viae'' adi verilen antik Roma yollarinin yapimi askeri, ticari ve siyasal nedenlerle gerekmis ve Romalilar bu yollar ag sistemini yapip ve sonra bakimini saglamakta buyuk deneyim kazanmislardir. Antik Roma yollari bir mahallden diger mahalle asker ve askeri malzeme tasimak icin yapilmakla beraber bu yollar ana tasit olarak atli araba icin yapilmisti. Roma askeri lejyonlari bu yollar nedeniyle cabuk ve emniyetli olarak ulke icinden Roma sinirlarina gidebilmekte idiler. Boylelikle bu yollar imparatorlugun emniyetini nve istikrarini saglamak icin en buyuk unsur olmuslardir. Diger taraftan Orta Caglara girmeden Roma Impartorlugu'nun cokusune de bir amil olmuslardir Romalilarin dusmanlari olan babbar kavimler bu yollardan Roma topraklarina gelip yerlesip idaresini ellerine gecirmislerdir. Roma imparatorlugu'nun ortadan kalkmasi ile birlikte bu yollarin cogu bin, iki bin yil ayni guzergahtan iletisimi saglamaya devam etmislerdir.
== İsimlendirme ==
Antik Roma yollari Latince "viae" olarak tanimlanmakta idi ve Latince ''vehere'' yani taşıma, getirme ve götürme anlamına gelen sözcükten türetilmişti. Belirli Antik Roma yollari bir özel yol isimi tasimaktaydi. Özel yol ismi, çok kere yolu yapmak icin devlet emirini veren ''censor'' ünvanli yuksek Romali devlet memuruna atfen verilmistir. Bu yol yapmaya izin veren memur Roma cumhuriyet zamaninda en yuksek devlet rutbesi olan ''konsul''un altindaydi. Bazi yollar isim veren kisiler sonradan konsul rutbesini de tasimislardir ama yol isim ''censor'' rutbesinde iken verdikleri emire dayanmaktaydaydi. Bazi antik Roma yollar daha ''censor'' rutbesi ortaya cikmadan yapilmis iseler o zaman ya vardiklari son merhale veye icinden gectikleri bolgelerden en buyugu ismin almislardir. Eger antik Roma yolunda buyuk bir degisme (yani yolun sathini tumunu degistirilmesi veya yol guzergah degismesi) halinde yeniden isim verilirdi.
== Antik Roman yol agi sistemleri ==
=== Yol tipleri ===
Roman roads vary from simple [[corduroy road]]s to paved roads using deep roadbeds of tamped rubble as an underlying layer to ensure that they kept dry, as the water would flow out from between the stones and fragments of rubble, instead of becoming mud in clay soils.
[[Dosya:Campidoglio - il miliarium.JPG|thumb|left|Mesafe taşı.]]
=== Yollarda seyahat ===
==== Mesafe taşları ====
[[Dosya:2006 0610PotaissaNapocaMiliar02834.jpg|thumb|250px|Potaissa Napoca Miliarium.]]
[[Dosya:RomaForoRomanoMiliariumAureum01.JPG|thumb|250px|Roma Forum'da bulunan ''miliarium aureum'' adi verilen antik Roma yollarinin baslangic tasi.]]
Before 250 BC, the [[via Appia]], and after 124 BC, most viae, were divided into numbered miles by [[milestone]]s. The modern word mile derives in fact from the Latin ''milia passuum'', "one thousand [[pace (length)|pace]]s", which amounted to about 1,500&nbsp;m. A milestone, or ''miliarium'', was a circular column on a solid rectangular base, set for more than 60&nbsp;cm into the ground, standing 1.50&nbsp;m, 50&nbsp;cm in diameter, weighing more than 2 tons. At the base was inscribed the number of the mile relative to the road it was on. In a panel at eye-height was the distance to the [[Roman Forum]] and various other information about the officials who made or repaired the road and when. These miliaria are valuable historical documents now. Their inscriptions are collected in the volume XVII of the ''[[Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum]]''.
Milestones permitted distances and locations to be known and recorded exactly. It was not long before historians began to refer to the milestone at which an event occurred.
==== Konaklama ====
A third system of way stations serviced vehicles and animals: the mutationes ("changing stations"). They were located every 12-18 miles. In these complexes, the driver could purchase the services of wheelwrights, cartwrights, and equarii medici, or veterinarians. Using these stations in chariot relays, the emperor [[Tiberius]] hastened 800 kilometers (500 miles) in 24 hours to join his brother, [[Nero Claudius Drusus|Drusus Germanicus]], who was dying of gangrene as a result of a fall from a horse.
==== Tasitlar ====
[[Dosya:Römischer Reisewagen.JPG|thumb|250px|Romali dort tekerlekli kapali araba]]
==== Ulak sistemi ====
=== Guzergah ===
[[Dosya:Part of Tabula Peutingeriana.jpg|thumb|left|'''Tabula Peutingeriana''' (merksi Guney Italya.]]
The term itinerary changed meaning over the centuries. In the [[Itinerarium Burdigalense]] (Bordeaux Pilgrim, 333 AD), the itinerary is a description of what route to take to the Holy Land. The [[Itinerarium Alexandri]] is a list of the conquests of [[Alexander the Great]]. Today it means either a travel journal or a list of recommended stops.The Romans put stones along the road to let travellers know how far to the next city or inn is.
== Yol yapimi ==
=== Metot ===
It is unclear that any standard terminology was used; the words for the different elements perhaps varied from region to region. Today the concrete has worn from the spaces around the stones, giving the impression of a very bumpy road, but the original surface was no doubt much closer to being flat. These remarkable roads are resistant to rain, freezing and flooding. They needed little repair.
=== Arizali arazilerin asilmasi ===
The Roman road (from [[Cazane]] near [[Iron Gates]]) was half carved into the rock, about 1.5-1.75 m, the rest of the road, above the [[Danube]], was made from wooden structure, projecting out of the cliff. this road functioned as a towpath, making the Danube navigable. Roman architects preferred to engineer solutions to obstacles rather than circumvent them.
Outcroppings of stone, ravines, or hilly or mountainous terrain called for cuttings and tunnels. Roman roads generally went straight up and down hills, rather than in a serpentine pattern. Grades of 10%-12% are known in ordinary terrain, 15%-20% in mountainous country.
=== Finansman ===
Financing road building was a Roman government responsibility. Maintenance, however, was generally left to the province. The officials tasked with fund raising were the ''curatores viarum'', similar to a [[:wiktionary:curator|curator]]. They had a number of methods available to them. Private citizens with an interest in the road could contribute to its repair. High officials might distribute [[Evergetism|largesse]] to be used for roads. Censors, who were in charge of public morals and public works, were expected to fund repairs ''sua pecunia'' (with their own money). Beyond those means, taxes were required.
== Antik Roman yollari listesi ==
== Ayrica bakiniz ==
* [[Roman kopruleri]]
== Dışsal kaynaklar ==
{{commons|Roman Road}}
'''Genel makaleler'''
* [http://www.unrv.com/culture/roman-roads.php Roman Roads]
* [http://www.historylink102.com/Rome/roman-roads.htm Road Map]
* [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/secondary/SMIGRA*/Viae.html Viae - Article by William Ramsay]
* [http://traianus.rediris.es/ Traianus] - Technical investigation of Roman public works
'''Antik Roma yol yapımı'''
* [http://www.brrp.bham.ac.uk/construction/construction.html Antik Roma yol yapimi] {{eng}}
* [http://www.battleoffulford.org.uk/ev_roman_rd_constrct.htm Antik Roma yol yapimi] {{eng}}
* [http://www.unrv.com/culture/roman-road-construction.php Antik Roma yol yapimi] {{eng}}
== Birincil Roma Kaynakları ==
* [[Siculus Flaccus]], 'De condicionibus agrorum' cap. XIX
* [[Isidore of Seville|Isidori Hispalensis Episcopi]] Etymologiarum sive Originum Liber XV, 15-16
** D.43.19 De itinere actuque privato.
== Dipnotlar ==
* Von Hagen, Victor W., ''The Roads That Led To Rome'', The World Publishing Company, Cleveland and New York, 1967
[[Kategori:Antik Roma yolları| ]]
[[ca:Via romana]]