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The term "'''marketing mix'''" is a foundation model for businesses, historically centered around product, price, place, and promotion<ref>{{cite book|last=McCarthy|first=Jerome E.|title=Basic Marketing. A Managerial Approach|year=1964|publisher=Irwin|location=Homewood, IL}}</ref> (also known as the "4 Ps"). The [[marketing]] mix has been defined as the "set of marketing tools that the firm uses to pursue its marketing objectives in the target market".<ref name=":0">Kotler, P., Marketing Management, (Millennium Edition), Custom Edition for University of Phoenix, Prentice Hall, 2000, p. 9.</ref>
 
Marketing theory emerged in the early twentieth century. The contemporary marketing mix which has become the dominant framework for marketing management decisions was first published in 1960.<ref>Grönroos, Christian. "From marketing mix to relationship marketing: towards a paradigm shift in marketing." Management decision 32.2 (1994): 4-20.</ref> In services marketing, an extended marketing mix is used, typically comprising '''7 Ps''', made up of the original 4 Ps extended by process, people, and physical evidence.<ref name="Booms 1981 47–51">{{cite journal|last=Booms|first=Bernard H.|author2=Bitner, Mary Jo|title=Marketing Strategies and Organization Structures for Service Firms|journal=Marketing of Services. American Marketing Association|year=1981 |pages=47–51}}</ref> Occasionally service marketers will refer to '''8 Ps''', comprising these 7 Ps plus performance.<ref name="Kotler 2012 25">{{cite book |last=Kotler |first=Philip |title=Marketing Management |year=2012 |page=25 |publisher=Pearson Education}}</ref>
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