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Josephus şüphesiz Roma'da [[Yahudiler|Yahudi]] insanlarının ve kültürünün özellikle anlaşmazlıklardaki gerilimin arttığı zamanlarda önemli bir savunucusuydu.[[Eusebius]] Josephus'un [[Roma]]'da bir heykelinin dikildiğini bildirir.<ref>''Hist. eccl.'' 3.9.2</ref> Eserleri [[Birinci Yahudi-Roma savaşı|İlk Roma - Yahudi savaşı]]nın can alıcı noktaları konusunda bilgiler vermesi açısından tarihsel önemi büyüktür.
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The works of Josephus provide crucial information about the First Jewish-Roman War and are also important literary source material for understanding the context of the [[Dead Sea Scrolls]] and post-[[Second Temple]] Judaism. Josephan scholarship in the [[19th century|19th]] and early [[20th century]] became focused on Josephus' relationship to the sect of the [[Pharisees]]. He was consistently portrayed as a member of the sect, but nevertheless viewed as a villainous traitor to his own nation - a view which became known as the classical concept of Josephus. In the mid 20th century, this view was challenged by a new generation of scholars who formulated the modern concept of Josephus, still considering him a Pharisee but restoring his reputation in part as patriot and a historian of some standing. Recent scholarship since 1990 has sought to move scholarly perceptions forward by demonstrating that Josephus was not a Pharisee but an orthodox Aristocrat-Priest who became part of the Temple establishment as a matter of deference and not willing association (Cf. Steve Mason, Todd Beall, and Ernst Gerlach).
Josephus offers information about individuals, groups, customs and geographical places. His writings provide a significant, extra-biblical account of the post-exilic period of the [[Maccabees]], the [[Hasmonean]] dynasty and the rise of [[Herod the Great]]. He makes references to the [[Sadducee]]s, Jewish [[Kohen Gadol|High Priests]] of the time, Pharisees and [[Essenes]], the [[Herod's Temple|Herodian Temple]], [[Quirinius]]' census and the [[Zealots]], and to such figures as [[Pontius Pilate]], [[Herod the Great]], [[Agrippa I]] and [[Agrippa II]], [[John the Baptist]], [[Josephus on Jesus#Reference to Jesus as brother of James .28xx 9.1.29|James the brother of Jesus]], and a [[Josephus on Jesus#Testimonium Flavianum|disputed reference]] to [[Jesus]]. He is an important source for studies of immediate post-Temple Judaism (and, thus, the context of [[early Christianity]]).
A careful reading of Josephus' writings allowed [[Ehud Netzer]], an archaeologist from Hebrew University, to confirm the location of Herod's Tomb after a fruitless search of 35 years - on top of tunnels and water pools at a flattened desert site, halfway up the hill to the [[Herodium]], 12 kilometers south of Jerusalem - exactly where it should be according to Josephus writings.
For many years, the works of Josephus were printed only in an imperfect Latin translation from the original Greek. It was only in 1544 that a version of the Greek text was made available, edited by the Dutch humanist [[Arnoldus Arlenius]]. The first English translation appeared in 1602 by Thomas Lodge with subsequent editions appearing throught the 17th century. However, the 1544 Greek translation formed the basis of the 1732 English translation by [[William Whiston]] which achieved enormous popularity in the English speaking world and which is currently available online for free download by [[Project Gutenberg]]. Later editions of the Greek text include that of [[Benedikt Niese]], who made a detailed examination of all the available manuscripts, mainly from France and Spain. This was the version used by H. St J. Thackeray for the [[Loeb Classical Library]] edition widely used today.-->
[[Dosya:WorksJosephus1640TP.jpg|200px|thumb|sağ|1602'de bulunan Josephus eserinin ''Thomas Lodge'' çevirisinin 1640 versiyonu.]]
* (c. 97) ''[[Against Apion|Flavius Josephus Against Apion]]'', or ''[[Against Apion]]'', or ''[[Contra Apionem]]'', or ''[[Against Apion|Against the Greeks, on the antiquity of the Jewish people]]'' (usually abbreviated ''CA'')
* (c. 99) ''[[The Life of Flavius Josephus]]'', or ''[[The Life of Flavius Josephus|Autobiography of Flavius Josephus]]'' (abbreviated ''Life'' or ''Vita'')
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{{Wikisourcelang|el|Ιουδαϊκός Πόλεμος|The Jewish War}}
{{Ana madde|The Wars of the Jews}}
His first work in Rome was an account of the Jewish War, addressed to certain "upper barbarians" – usually thought to be the Jewish community in [[Mesopotamia]] – in his "paternal tongue" (''War'' I.3), arguably the Western [[Aramaic language]]. He then wrote a seven-volume account in [[Greek language|Greek]] known to us as the ''[[The Wars of the Jews|Jewish War]]'' ([[Latin]] ''Bellum Iudaicum''). It starts with the period of the [[Maccabees]] and concludes with accounts of the fall of [[Jerusalem]], the Roman victory celebrations in Rome, the mopping-up operations, Roman military operations elsewhere in the Empire and the uprising in [[Cyrene, Libya|Cyrene]]. Together with the account in his ''Life'' of some of the same events, it also provides the reader with an overview of Josephus' own part in the events since his return to Jerusalem from a brief visit to Rome in the early [[60s]] (''Life'' 13-17).
Rome cannot have been an easy place for a Jew in the wake of the suppression of the Jewish revolt. Josephus would have witnessed the marches of Titus' triumphant legions leading their Jewish captives, and carrying trophies of despoiled treasure from the [[Temple in Jerusalem]]. He would have experienced the popular presentation of the Jews as a bellicose and misanthropic people.
It was against this background that Josephus wrote his ''War'', and although often dismissed as pro-Roman propaganda (perhaps hardly surprising given where his patronage was coming from), he claims to be writing to counter anti-Judean accounts. He disputes the claim that the Jews serve a defeated god and are naturally hostile to Roman civilization. Rather, he blames the Jewish War on what he calls "unrepresentative and [[Zealots|over-zealous fanatics]]" among the Jews, who led the masses away from their natural aristocratic leaders (like him), with disastrous results. He also blames some of the governors of Judea, but these he presents as atypical Romans: corrupt and incompetent administrators. Thus, according to Josephus, the traditional Jew was, should be, and can be, a loyal and peace-loving citizen. Jews can, and historically have, accepted Rome's hegemony precisely because of their faith that God himself gives empires their power.
===Jewish Antiquities===
The next literary work by Josephus is his twenty-one volume ''[[Jewish Antiquities|Antiquities of the Jews]]'', completed in the last year of the emperor Flavius [[Domitian]] (between 1.9.93 and 14.3.94, cf. AJ X.267). He claims that interested persons have pressed him to give a fuller account of the Jewish culture and constitution. Here, in expounding Jewish history, law and custom, he is entering into many philosophical debates current in Rome at that time. Again he offers an ''apologia'' for the antiquity and universal significance of the Jewish people.
Beginning with the story of [[Creation (theology)|Creation]], he outlines Jewish history. [[Abraham]] taught [[science]] to the [[Ancient Egypt|Egyptians]], who in turn taught the [[Greeks]]. [[Moses]] set up a senatorial priestly aristocracy, which like that of Rome resisted monarchy. The great figures of the [[Bible|biblical stories]] are presented as ideal philosopher-leaders. There is again an autobiographical appendix defending Josephus' own conduct at the end of the war when he cooperated with the Roman forces.
===Against Apion===
Josephus' ''[[Against Apion]]'' is a final two-volume defence of Judaism as [[classical antiquity|classical]] [[religion]] and [[philosophy]], stressing its antiquity against what Josephus claimed was the relatively more recent traditions of the Greeks. Some anti-Judean allegations ascribed by Josephus to the Greek writer [[Apion]], and myths accredited to [[Manetho]] are also exposed.-->
== Josephus ile ilgili eserler ==
* Louis Feldman. "Flavius Josephus revisited. The man, his writings, and his significance." ''Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt'' 21.2 (1984).
== Dipnotlar Kaynakça==
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== Dış bağlantılar ==
* {{İng}}[https://archive.is/20060901094205/http://www.dinur.org/resources/resourceCategoryDisplay.aspx?categoryid=433&rsid=478 Resources > Second Temple and Talmudic Era > Flavius Josephus] The Jewish History Resource Center - Project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
* {{İng}}[http://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/JOSEPHUS.HTM The Works of Flavius Josephus Translated by William Whiston]