"Bari Kuşatması" sayfasının sürümleri arasındaki fark

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1060'a gelindiğinde Puglia'daki sadece birkaç kıyı kenti hala Bizans'ın elinde idi. Önceki birkaç on yıl boyunca, Normanlar güney İtalya'daki mülklerini arttırmıştı ve şimdi de [[Sicilya Emirliği|İslam toprağı]] olan [[Sicilya]]'nın fethine odaklanmadan önce Bizanslıların yarımadadan tamamen çıkarılmalarını amaçlıyorlardı.
 
Böylece büyük askeri birlikler Sicilya'dan çağrıldı ve Conversano Kontu Geoffrey komutasında [[Otranto]] kuşatıldı.<ref name="GRev201">{{citeKitap bookkaynağı|first=Giorgio |page=201|last=Ravegnani|title= I bizantini in Italia|language=İtalyanca |location=Bologna|publisher=Il Mulino|year=2004}}</ref>
 
=== Kuşatma ===
Romanos IV named a new [[catepan]], Avartuteles, and provided him with a fleet with men and supplies for Bari. The Byzantine fleet arrived at the city in early 1069, but in the meantime a Byzantine field army was defeated by the Normans, who occupied [[Gravina di Puglia|Gravina]] and [[Obbiano]]. Robert did not return immediately to Bari, and in the January 1070 he moved to [[Brindisi]] to help the Norman forces then besieging that coastal fortress. Brindisi capitulated in the autumn of 1070.<ref name="William"/>
 
The situation in Bari was then critical, and the population suffered from famine. Avartuteles plotted to have Robert assassinated, but the Byzantine ''patricius'' Byzantios Guideliku failed. A delegation of citizens asked the catepan to improve the city's defence, or otherwise surrender it to the Normans. Avartuteles played for time, sending another embassy to Constantinople. He obtained the arrival of a fleet with grain in Bari. When the grain ran out, a group of citizens again asked the catepan to beg the emperor to send an army as soon as possible.<ref>{{citeKitap bookkaynağı|first=Giorgio |page=202|last=Ravegnani|title= I bizantini in Italia|language=Italian |location=Bologna|publisher=Il Mulino|year=2004}}</ref>
 
Romanos IV, whose generals had been repeatedly defeated by the Normans, and with few free troops to dispatch, sent twenty ships under the command of a Gocelin, a Norman rebel who had taken shelter in Constantinople. Stephen Pateran, appointed as new catepan of Italy, came with him. However, the Normans intercepted the Byzantine ships off Bari and scattered them. The Norman sailors identified Gocelin's ship and, despite the loss of 150 men, finally captured it; Stephen was instead able to reach Bari. He soon recognized that the defence had become impossible; a local noble, [[Argyritzos]], was sent to negotiate with the Normans. The latter offered acceptable conditions, and Bari surrendered on April 1071.<ref>{{citeKitap bookkaynağı|first=Giorgio |page=212|last=Ravegnani|title= I bizantini in Italia|language=Italian |location=Bologna|publisher=Il Mulino|year=2004}}</ref>
 
===Aftermath===
Stephen Pateran was initially imprisoned, but was later allowed to return to Constantinople with other Byzantine survivors.<ref>{{citeKitap bookkaynağı|first=Giorgio |page=203|last=Ravegnani|title= I bizantini in Italia|language=Italian |location=Bologna|publisher=Il Mulino|year=2004}}</ref>
 
With the fall of Bari, the Byzantine presence in southern Italy ended after 536 years. Emperor [[Manuel I Komnenos]] tried to reconquer southern Italy in 1156-1158, but the attempt turned into a failure.<ref>{{citeKitap bookkaynağı|first=Ralph-Johannes |last=Lilie|title= Bisanzio la seconda Roma|location= Rome|publisher= Newton & Compton|year= 2005|isbn= 88-541-0286-5|language=Italian}}</ref>
 
According to William of Apulia, Robert Guiscard "entrusted the city" to Argyritzos. The earliest document of Norman rule, however, shows a certain Lizius, probably a Norman, as viscount and a ''patrikios'' named Maurelianus, probably a native Bariot, as catepan.<ref name=Loud136>G. A. Loud, ''The Age of Robert Guiscard: Southern Italy and the Norman Conquest'' (Routledge, 2013), p. 136.</ref>
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