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Mevlânâ 30 Eylül 1207 tarihinde [[Horasan]]'ın [[Belh]] bölgesinde, [[Afganistan]] sınırları içinde kalan [[Vahş]] kasabasında doğmuştur. Annesi, Belh Emiri Rükneddin'in kızı Mümine Hatun; babaannesi, [[Harezmşahlar]] hanedanından [[Fars]] [[Prenses]]i, Melîke-i Cihan Emetullah Sultan'dır.<ref>Hazreti Mevlânâ Muhammed Celâleddin-i Rûmî Hayatı ve Şahsiyeti, Yrd.Doç.Dr. A. Selâhaddin Hidâyetoğlu, S.Ü. İlahiyat Fakültesi Türk-İslâm Edebiyatı Anabilim Dalı Öğretim Görevlisi, 1996</ref>
 
Babası, "alimlerin sultânı" unvanı ile tanınmış, Muhammed Bahâeddin Veled; büyükbabası, Ahmed Hatîbî oğlu Hüseyin Hatîbî'dir. Babasına Sultânü'l-Ulemâ unvanının verilmesini kaynaklar Türk gelenekleri ile açıklamaktadır.<ref>Midhat Bahari BEYTUR, Divan-ı Kebir'den Seçme Şiirler, Milli Eğitim Basımevi, İstanbul, 1965, C.l/s.17</ref> Etnik kökeni tartışmalı olup; [[Fars]]Farstır<ref>[[Annemarie Schimmel]], ''The Triumphal Sun: A Study of the Works of Jalaloddin Rumi'', SUNY Press, 1993, S. 193: ''“Rumi’s mother tongue was Persian, but he had learned during his stay in Konya, enough Turkish and Greek to use it, now and then, in his verse”''
* Franklin Lewis, ''Rumi Past and Present, East and West'', Oneworld Publications, 2000, S. 9: ''“How is it that a Persian boy born almost eight hundred years ago in Khorasan, the northeastern province of greater Iran, in a region that we identify today as Central Asia, but was considered in those days as part of the greater Persian cultural sphere, wound up in Central Anatolia on the receding edge of the Byzantine cultural sphere, in which is now Turkey, some 1500 miles to the west?”''
* 1)Speros Vryonis,"The Turkish State and History", Aristide D Caratzas Pub; 2 Sub edition (September 1992), p.51: "Djalal al-Din Rumi, the great Persian mystic and poet who lived most of his life in Konya is said to have had a very vivid and violent opinion of the nature of the Turkmen nomads of the Rum sultanate: “There is a well known story that the sheikh Salah al-Din one day hired some Turkmen workmen to build the walls of his garden. "Effendi Salah al-Din", said the master (Rumi), "you must hire Greek workmen for this construction. It is for the work of demolition that Turkish workmen must be hired. For the construction of the world is special to the Greeks, and the demolition of this same world is reserved for the Turks. When God created the universe, he first made the carefree infidels. He gave them a long life and considerable force in such a fashion...that in the manner of paid workmen they constructed the earthly world. They erected numerous cities and mountain fortresses...so that after centuries these constructions served as models to the men of recent times. But divine predestination has disposed of affairs in such a way that little by little the constructions become ruins. He created the people of the Turks in order to demolish, without respect or pity, all the constructions which they see. They have done this and are still doing it. They shall continue to do it day in and day out until the Resurrection!"”
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