"Bizans İmparatorluğu" sayfasının sürümleri arasındaki fark

düzeltme AWB ile
(düzeltme AWB ile)
(düzeltme AWB ile)
4. yüzyıldan 6. yüzyıla kadar yaşanan bazı göze çarpan olaylar, Roma İmparatorluğu'nun [[Grek Doğu ve Latin Batı]] şeklinde ayrışma sürecini belirledi. [[I. Konstantin]] (taht: 324–337) imparatorluğu yeniden organize ederek [[Konstantinopolis]]'i başkent yaptı ve [[Hristiyanlık]] dinini yasallaştırdı. [[I. Theodosius]] (taht: 379–395) döneminde, Hristiyanlık ülkenin [[devlet dini]] olarak kabul edildi ve [[I. Theodosius döneminde Hristiyanlık tarafından paganizme yönelik zulüm|diğer dinler yasaklandı]]. Son olarak [[Herakleios]] zamanında (taht: 610–641), imparatorluğun askerî ve idari sistemi yeniden yapılandırıldı ve Latince yerine Yunanca resmî dil olarak benimsendi.{{sfnm|Ostrogorsky|1969|1pp=105–107, 109|Norwich|1998|2p=97|Haywood|2001|3pp=2.17, 3.06, 3.15}} Böylece, her ne kadar Roma devleti ve devlet gelenekleri sürdürüldüyse de, Konstantinopolis çevresinde, Latin'den ziyade Yunan kültürü ve [[Doğu Ortodoks Kilisesi|Ortodoks Hristiyanlık]] geleneklerine göre şekillendiğinden ötürü, modern tarihçiler Bizans'ı [[Antik Roma]]'dan ayırır.{{sfnm|1a1=Millar|1y=2006|1pp=2, 15|2a1=James|2y=2010|2p=5|3a1=Freeman|3y=1999|3pp=431, 435–437, 459–462|4a1=Baynes|4a2=Moss|4y=1948|4p=xx|5a1=Ostrogorsky|5y=1969|5p=27|6a1=Kaldellis|6y=2007|6pp=2–3|7a1=Kazhdan|7a2=Constable|7y=1982|7p=12|8a1=Norwich|8y=1998|8p=383}}
 
İmparatorluğun sınırları, ülkenin var olduğu süre içinde, bazı gerileme ve toparlanma döngüleriyle kendini belli eden kayda değer değişiklikler gösterdi. [[I. Justinianus]] (taht: 527–565) döneminde Kuzey Afrika, İtalya ve bizzat &ndash;daha sonraki iki asır elde tutulacak olan&ndash; Roma şehri de dahil olmak üzere Batı [[Akdeniz|Akdeniz kıyıları]] yeniden ele geçirildi ve imparatorluk en geniş sınırlarına erişti. [[Mauricius]] (taht: 582–602) döneminde ülkenin doğu sınırları genişledi ve kuzey sağlamlaştırıldı. Ancak imparator bir suikaste kurban gidince [[Bizans-Sasani Savaşı (602-628)]] patlak verdi ve kaynaklar bakımından zayıflayan Bizans İmparatorluğu, 7. yüzyılda [[İslam'ın yayılışı]] sürecinde çok büyük toprak kayıpları yaşadı. Birkaç yıl içerisinde en zengin illeri olan Mısır ve Suriye'yi Araplara kaybetti.<ref>{{citeKitap bookkaynağı |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=iSWPAgAAQBAJ |title=Warfare, State And Society In The Byzantine World 560–1204 |work= |page=47}}</ref>
 
[[Makedon Hanedanı]] (10-11. yüzyıllar) süresince imparatorluk sınırları tekrar genişledi ve iki yüzyıl süren [[Makedon Rönesansı]] yaşandı. Bu dönem 1071 [[Malazgirt Savaşı]] sonrası [[Anadolu]]'da başlayan büyük toprak kayıplarıyla son buldu. Bu savaşta yaşanan kayıp sonucunda Türkler Anadolu'ya yerleşmeye başladı.
[[Dosya:Aya sofya.jpg|thumb|250px|Konstantinopolis Patrikliği'nin evrensel prestijinin bir sembolü ve dışavurumu olarak Justinianus, "Tanrı'nın Kutsal Bilgeliği Kilisesi" ya da bilenen adıyla [[Ayasofya]]'yı dört sene gibi kısa bir sürede inşa ettirdi (532–537).]]
 
Bizans İmparatorluğu bir [[teokrasi]]ydi ve [[Teslis|Tanrı]]'nın ülkeyi imparator aracılığıyla yönettiğine inanılıyordu. Jennifer Fretland VanVoorst bu konuda şunları söyledi: "Bizans İmparatorluğu, Hristiyanlık değerleri ve fikirlerinin ülkedeki siyasî fikirlere zemin oluşturduğu ve ülkenin siyasî hedefleriyle iç içe geçtiği bir teokrasidir."<ref>{{citeKitap bookkaynağı|author=Jennifer Fretland VanVoorst|title=The Byzantine Empire|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=RyOoBQiCm88C&pg=PA14|year=2012|publisher=Capstone|page=14}}</ref> ''Bizans Teokrasisi'' (2004) adlı kitabında Steven Runciman şunları söyler:
:Bizans İmparatorluğu'nun anayasası, ülkenin Cennet Krallığı'nın dünyevi bir kopyası olduğuna olan inanç üzerinden temellenir. Nasıl ki Tanrı Cennet'te yönetici konumdaysa, onun görüntüsünden yaratılan imparator da dünya üzerinde yönetmeli ve onun emirlerine uymalıdır&nbsp;... Kendini evrensel bir imparatorluk olarak görüyordu. İdeal olarak, her biri ideal dünyada tek ve gerçek Hristiyan Kilisesi'ne, yani Ortodoks Kilisesi'ne bağlı insanlarla dolu dünyanın bütün insanlarını kucaklamalıydı. Zira insan Tanrı'nın görüntüsüydü ve dolayısıyla insanın dünyadaki krallığı da Cennet Krallığı'nın bir görüntü olmak durumundaydı.<ref>{{harvnb|Runciman|2004|pp=1–2, 162-163}}.</ref> İmparatorluğun Doğu'da hayatta kalışı, imparatorun Kilise işleri üzerinde aktif rol almasını garantiledi. Bizans devleti, pagan dönemlerden, dinî işlerin idari ve finansal rutinlerini miras almıştı ve bu rutinler olduğu gibi [[Hristiyan Kilisesi]]'ne uygulandı. [[Eusebius]] tarafından ortaya konulan modelin ardından, Bizanslılar imparatoru paganlar arasında Hristiyanlık dinini yaymakla ve dinin dış yönlerini (özellikle idare ve finans gibi) yönetmekle yükümlü olan bir [[İsa]] temsilcisi/habercisi olarak kabul etti. [[Cyril Mango]]'nun da değindiği üzere Bizans siyasî düşüncesi, "Tek Tanrı, tek imparatorluk, tek din" mottosuyla özetlenebilir.<ref name="M108">{{harvnb|Mango|2007|p=108}}.</ref>
 
=== Birincil kaynaklar ===
{{Refbegin|30em}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Honiatis|first=Nikitas |authorlink=Nikitas Honiatis|title=Translations and Reprints from the Original Sources of European History by D.C. Munro (Series 1, Vol 3:1)|location=Philadelphia|publisher=University of Pennsylvania Press|pages=15–16|year=1912|chapter=The Sack of Constantinople (1204)|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Kinnamos|first=İoannis |authorlink=İoannis Kinnamos|title=Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus|location=New York and West Sussex|publisher=Columbia University Press|year=1976|isbn=0-231-04080-6|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|author=Eusebius|authorlink=Eusebius|title=Life of Constantine (Book IV)|publisher=[[Christian Classics Ethereal Library]]|url=http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf201.iv.vi.i.i.html}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|author=Geoffroy de Villeha|authorlink=Geoffroy de Villehardouin|title= Chronicles of the Crusades (translated by Margaret R. Shaw)|publisher=Penguin Classics|year=1963|isbn=0-14-044124-7|chapter=The Conquest of Constantinople|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Komnini|first=Anna|authorlink=Anna Komnini|title=The Alexiad (translated by Elizabeth A. S. Dawes)|publisher=Internet Medieval Sourcebook|chapter=Books X-XIII |url=http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/annacomnena-alexiad00.html|year=1928|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|editor-last=Seeck|editor-first=Otto|title=Notitia Dignitatum; accedunt Notitia Urbis Constantinopolitanae Laterculi Prouinciarum|location=Berlin|publisher=Weidmann|year=1876|url=https://archive.org/Detaylar/notitiadignitat00silvgoog|ref=harv}}
{{Refend}}
 
=== İkincil kaynaklar ===
{{Refbegin|30em}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|first=Agustí|last=Alemany|title=Sources on the Alans: A Critical Compilation|location=Leiden|publisher=Brill|year=2000|pages=170–243|isbn=90-04-11442-4|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Ahrweiler|first=Hélène|last2=Laiou|first2=Angeliki E.|author1-link=Helene Ahrweiler|author2-link=Angeliki Laiou|title=Studies on the Internal Diaspora of the Byzantine Empire|chapter=Preface|location=Washington, DC|publisher=Dumbarton Oaks|year=1998|isbn=0-88402-247-1|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Anastos|first=Milton V.|year=1962|title=The History of Byzantine Science. Report on the Dumbarton Oaks Symposium of 1961|journal=Dumbarton Oaks Papers|issn=0070-7546|volume=16|pages=409–411| doi=10.2307/1291170|jstor=1291170|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Angold|first=Michael|title=The Byzantine Empire, 1025–1204: A Political History|location=London|publisher=Longman|year=1997|isbn=978-0-582-29468-4|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Antonucci|first=Michael|year=1993|title=War by Other Means: The Legacy of Byzantium|journal=History Today|volume=43|issue=2|pages=11–13|issn=0018-2753|url=http://www.historytoday.com/michael-antonucci/war-other-means-legacy-byzantium|accessdate=21 May 2007|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Apostolides|first=Sophocles Evangelinus|title=Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods|location=Hildesheim|publisher=Georg Olms|year=1992|isbn=3-487-05765-4|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Ash|first=John|title=A Byzantine Journey|year=1995|location=New York|publisher=Random House Incorporated|isbn=978-1-84511-307-0|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=1dVtAAAAMAAJ|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Austin|first=Roland G.|title=Zeno's Game of τάβλη|journal=The Journal of Hellenic Studies|volume=54|issue=2|year=1934|pages=202–205|url=http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/626864|doi=10.2307/626864|ref=harv}}
*{{Kaynak|soyadı=Barker|ad=Ernest|başlık=Bizans Toplumsal ve Siyasal Düşünüşü|yıl=1995|yayıncı=İmge Kitabevi Yayınları|yer=İstanbul|isbn=9755331344|basım=2|yazarbağı=Ernest Barker|diğerleri=Mete Tunçay, çev.}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Bayless|first=William N.|year=1976|title=The Treaty with the Huns of 443|journal=The American Journal of Philology|volume=97|pages=176–179|jstor=294410|ref=harv|doi=10.2307/294410}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Baynes|first=Norman Hepburn|year=1912|title=The Restoration of the Cross at Jerusalem|doi=10.1093/ehr/XXVII.CVI.287|journal=The English Historical Review|volume=27|issue=106|issn=0013-8266|pages=287–299|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|editor1-last=Baynes|editor1-first=Norman Hepburn|editor2-last=Moss|editor2-first=Henry St. Lawrence Beaufort|title=Byzantium: An Introduction to East Roman Civilization|location=Oxford|publisher=Clarendon Press|year=1948|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Baynes|first=Spencer|chapter=Vlachs|title=Encyclopædia Britannica|edition=11th|location=New York|year=1907|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Beaton|first=Roderick|title=The Medieval Greek Romance|location=New York and London|publisher=Routledge|year=1996|isbn=0-415-12032-2|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Beckwith|first=John|title=Early Christian and Byzantine Art|location=New Haven|publisher=Yale University Press|origyear=1970|year=1993|isbn=0-300-05296-0|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Béhar|first=Pierre|title=Vestiges d'Empires: La Décomposition de l'Europe Centrale et Balkanique|location=Paris|publisher=Éditions Desjonquères|year=1999|isbn=2-84321-015-1|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Benz|first=Ernst|title=The Eastern Orthodox Church: Its Thought and Life|year=1963|location=Piscataway|publisher=Aldine Transaction|isbn=978-0-202-36298-4|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Q5Z_evECb1UC|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Bideleux|first1=Robert|last2=Jeffries|first2=Ian|title=A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change|location=New York and London|publisher=Routledge|year=1998|isbn=0-415-16111-8|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Birkenmeier|first=John W.|title=The Development of the Komnenian Army: 1081–1180|location=Leiden|publisher=Brill|year=2002|isbn=90-04-11710-5|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Blume|first=Fred H.|editor-last=Kearley|authorlink=Fred H. Blume|editor-first=Timothy|title=Annotated Justinian Code|year=2008|url=http://www.uwyo.edu/lawlib/blume-justinian/index.html|location=Laramie|publisher=University of Wyoming|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Bowersock|first=G.M.|title=Julian the Apostate|publisher=Harvard University Press|year=1997|isbn= 978-0-674-48882-3|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Bray|first=R. S.|title=Armies of Pestilence: The Impact of Disease on History|publisher=James Clarke|year=2004|isbn=0-227-17240-X|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Browning|first=Robert|chapter=The Continuity of Hellenism in the Byzantine world: Appearance or Reality?|pages=111–128|editor1-last=Winnifrith|editor1-first=Tom|editor2-last=Murray|editor2-first=Penelope|title=Greece Old and New|year=1983|location=New York|publisher=Macmillan|isbn=0-333-27836-4|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Browning|first=Robert|title=The Byzantine Empire|location=Washington, DC|publisher=The Catholic University of America Press|year=1992|isbn=0-8132-0754-1|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Bryce|first=James|title=Studies in History and Jurisprudence, Vol. 1|publisher=H. Frowde|year=1901|isbn=1-4021-9046-8|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Brooke|first=Zachary Nugent|title=A History of Europe, from 911 to 1198|location=London|publisher=Methuen|year=1962|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Burns|first=Thomas S.|title=A History of Ostrogoths|location=Bloomington and Indianapolis|publisher=Indiana University Press|year=1991|isbn=0-253-20600-6|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Bury|first=John Bagnall|authorlink=J. B. Bury|title=History of the Later Roman Empire|location=London|publisher=Macmillan|year=1923|url=http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/secondary/BURLAT/home.html|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Bury|first1=John Bagnall|last2=Philotheus|title=The Imperial Administrative System of the Ninth Century: With a Revised Text of the Kletorologion of Philotheos|year=1911|location=London|publisher=Oxford University Press|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Bury|first1=John Bagnall|title=The Early History of the Slavonic Settlements in Dalmatia, Croatia, & Serbia|location=New York|publisher=Macmillan|year=1920|url=https://archive.org/stream/earlyhistoryofsl00consrich|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Cameron|first=Averil|authorlink=Averil Cameron|year=1979|title=Images of Authority: Elites and Icons in Late Sixth-century Byzantium|doi=10.1093/past/84.1.3|journal=Past and Present|volume=84|issue=1|page=3|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Cameron|first=Averil|title=The Byzantines|year=2006|location=Oxford|publisher=Blackwell|isbn=978-1-4051-9833-2|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Cameron|first=Averil|script-title=el:Οι Βυζαντινοί|location=Athens|publisher=Psychogios|year=2009|language=Greek|isbn=978-960-453-529-3|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Campbell|first=George L.|title=Compendium of the World's Languages: Abaza to Kurdish|year=2000|origyear=1991|location=New York and London|publisher=Routledge|isbn=0-415-20296-5|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Chapman|first=John H.|title=Studies on the Early Papacy|year=1971|publisher=Kennikat Press, University of Michigan|isbn=0-8046-1139-4|ref=harv}}
*{{Kaynak|soyadı=Cheynet|ad=Jean-Claude|başlık=Bizans Tarihi|yıl=2008|yayıncı=Dost Kitabevi Yayınları|yer=Ankara|isbn=9789752983526|yazarbağı=Jean-Claude Cheynet|diğerleri=İsmail Yerguz, çev.}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Chrysos|first=Evangelos|title=Byzantine Diplomacy: Papers from the Twenty-Fourth Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, Cambridge, March 1990 (Society for the Promotion of Byzant)|year=1992|publisher=Variorum|isbn=0-86078-338-3|editor=Jonathan Shepard, Simon Franklin|chapter=Byzantine Diplomacy, CE 300–800: Means and End|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Clark|first=Victoria|title=Why Angels Fall: A Journey through Orthodox Europe from Byzantium to Kosovo|location=London|publisher=Macmillan|year=2000|isbn=0-312-23396-5|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Cohen|first=H. Floris|title=The Scientific Revolution: A Historiographical Inquiry|location=Chicago|publisher=University of Chicago Press|year=1994|isbn=0-226-11280-2|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Comrie|first=Bernard|chapter=Russian|pages=91–152|editor-last=Shopen|editor-first=Timothy|title=Languages and Their Status|location=Philadelphia|publisher=University of Pennsylvania Press|year=1987|isbn=0-8122-1249-5|ref=harv}}
*{{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Dalby|first1=Andrew|last2=Bourbou|first2=Chryssi|last3=Koder|first3=Johannes|last4=Leontsinē|first4=Maria|year=2013|title=Flavours and Delights: Tastes and Pleasures of Ancient and Byzantine Cuisine|location=Athens and Thessaloniki|publisher=Armos Publications|isbn=9789605277475|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=0bdvnQEACAAJ|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Davidson|first=Alan|title=The Oxford Companion to Food|year=2014|location=Oxford|publisher=Oxford University Press|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=RL6LAwAAQBAJ|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Davies|first=Norman|authorlink=Norman Davies|title=Europe: A History|year=1996|location=Oxford|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=0-19-820171-0|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Day|first=Gerald W.|title=Manuel and the Genoese: A Reappraisal of Byzantine Commercial Policy in the Late Twelfth Century|journal=The Journal of Economic History|volume=37 |issue=2|pages=289–301|doi=10.1017/S0022050700096947|year=1977|jstor=2118759|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Dennis|first=George T.|title=Three Byzantine Military Treatises|location=Washington, DC|publisher=Dumbarton Oaks|year=1985|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Diehl|first=Charles|authorlink=Charles Diehl|chapter=Byzantine Art|editor1-last=Baynes|editor1-first=Norman Hepburn|editor2-last=Moss|editor2-first=Henry St. Lawrence Beaufort|title=Byzantium: An Introduction to East Roman Civilization|location=Oxford|publisher=Clarendon|year=1948|oclc=1058121|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Drake|first=H. A.|title=Constantine and Consensus|journal=Church History|volume=64|issue=1|year=1995|pages=1–15|jstor=3168653|ref=harv|doi=10.2307/3168653}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Duiker|first1=William J.|last2=Spielvogel|first2=Jackson J.|title=The Essential World History|year=2010|location=Boston|publisher=Wadsworth|isbn=978-0-495-90227-0|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=El-Cheikh|first=Nadia Maria|title=Byzantium Viewed by the Arabs|publisher=Harvard University Press|location=Cambridge, MA|year=2004|isbn=0-932885-30-6|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Esler|first=Philip Francis|title=The Early Christian World|year=2004|location=New York and London|publisher=Routledge|isbn=0-415-33312-1|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Evans|first=James Allan Stewart|title=The Emperor Justinian and the Byzantine Empire|location=Westport|publisher=Greenwood|year=2005|isbn=0-313-32582-0|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Evans|first=Helen C.|title=Byzantium, Faith and Power (1261–1557)|year=2004|location=New York, NY|publisher=Metropolitan Museum of Art/Yale University Press|isbn=1-58839-114-0|url=http://libmma.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p15324coll10/id/58371/rec/3|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Faas|first=Patrick|title=Around the Roman Table: Food and Feasting in Ancient Rome|year=2005|origyear=1994|location=Chicago|publisher=University of Chicago Press|isbn=9780226233475|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=YXGlAr17oekC|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Fine|first=John V.A.|title=The early medieval Balkans|publisher=The University of Michigan Press|year=1983|isbn=0-472-08149-7|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Foss|first=Clive|year=1975|title=The Persians in Asia Minor and the end of antiquity|journal=The English Historical Review|volume=90|issue=357|pages=721–747|doi=10.1093/ehr/XC.CCCLVII.721|jstor=567292|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Fossier|first1=Robert|last2=Sondheimer|first2=Janet|title=The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Middle Ages|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=1997|isbn=0-521-26644-0|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Fouracre|first1=Paul|last2=Gerberding|first2=Richard A.|title=Late Merovingian France: History and Hagiography, 640–720|location=Manchester|publisher=Manchester University Press|year=1996|isbn=0-7190-4791-9|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Freeman|first=Charles|title=The Greek Achievement – The Foundation of the Western World|location=New York|publisher=Penguin|year=1999|isbn=0-670-88515-0|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Friell|first1=Gerard|last2=Williams|first2=Stephen|title=Theodosius: The Empire at Bay|publisher=Routledge|year=2005|isbn=978-1-135-78262-7|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Gabriel|first=Richard A.|year=2002|title=The Great Armies of Antiquity|location=Westport|publisher=Greenwood|isbn=0-275-97809-5|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Garland|first=Lynda|year=1999|title=Byzantine Empresses: Women and Power in Byzantium, CE 527–1204|location=New York and London|publisher=Routledge|isbn=0-415-14688-7|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Gibbon|first=Edward|authorlink=Edward Gibbon|title=The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (Volumes II, III, and IX)|editor=J. B. Bury (with an Introduction by W. E. H. Lecky)|location=New York|publisher=Fred de Fau|year=1906|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Grabar|first=André|title=L'iconoclasme Byzantin: le dossier archéologique|publisher=Flammarion|year=1984|isbn=2-08-081634-9|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Grant|first=Robert M.|jstor=1202069|title=Religion and Politics at the Council at Nicaea|journal=The Journal of Religion|volume=55|issue=1|year=1975|pages=1–12|ref=harv|doi=10.1086/486406}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Greatrex|first1=Geoffrey B.|editor-last=Maas|editor-first=Michael|chapter=Byzantium and the East in the Sixth Century|title=The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=2005|pages=477–509|isbn=0-521-81746-3|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Greatrex|first1=Geoffrey|last2=Lieu|first2=Samuel N. C.|title=The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars (Part II, 363–630 AD)|location=New York and London|publisher=Routledge|year=2002|isbn=0-415-14687-9|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Gregory|first=Timothy E.|title=A History of Byzantium|location=Malden|publisher=Wiley-Blackwell|year=2010|isbn=1-4051-8471-X|ref=harv}}
*{{Kaynak|soyadı=Gregory|ad=Timothy|başlık=Bizans Tarihi|yıl=2008|yayıncı=Yapı Kredi Yayınları|yer=İstanbul|isbn=9789750815072|yazarbağı=Timothy E. Gregory|diğerleri=Esra Ermert, çev.}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Grierson|first=Philip|title=Byzantine Coinage|year=1999|location=Washington, DC|publisher=Dumbarton Oaks|url=http://www.doaks.org/byzcoins.pdf|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070927000204/http://www.doaks.org/byzcoins.pdf|archivedate=27 September 2007|deadurl=yes|isbn=0-88402-274-9|format=PDF|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Gross|first=Feliks|title=Citizenship and Ethnicity: The Growth and Development of a Democratic Multiethnic Institution|year=1999|location=Westport|publisher=Greenwood|isbn=0-313-30932-9|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Gutas|first=Dimitri|title=Greek Thought, Arabic Culture: The Graeco-Arabic Translation Movement|year=1998|isbn=0-415-06132-6|location=New York and London|publisher=Routledge|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Hacikyan|first1=Agop Jack|last2=Basmajian|first2=Gabriel|last3=Franchuk|first3=Edward S.|last4=Ouzounian|first4=Nourhan|title=The Heritage of Armenian Literature: From the Sixth to the Eighteenth Century|location=Detroit|publisher=Wayne State University Press|year=2002|isbn=0-8143-3023-1|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Haldon|first=John|title=Byzantium in the Seventh Century: The Transformation of a Culture|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=1990|isbn=978-0-521-31917-1|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Haldon|first=John|title=The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East VI: Elites Old and New in the Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East|year=2004|publisher=Darwin|editor=John Haldon and Lawrence I. Conrad|chapter=The Fate of the Late Roman Senatorial Elite: Extinction or Transformation?|isbn=0-87850-144-4|ref=harv}}
* {{Web kaynağı | last = Halsall | first = Paul | title = East Asian History Sourcebook: Chinese Accounts of Rome, Byzantium and the Middle East, c. 91 B.C.E. – 1643 C.E. | url = http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/eastasia/romchin1.html | location = New York | publisher = Fordham University | year = 1998 | accessdate = 21 April 2012 | ref = harv | arşivurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20140910050947/http://www.fordham.edu:80/halsall/eastasia/romchin1.html | arşivtarihi = 10 Eylül 2014}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Harris|first=Jonathan|year=2014|title=Byzantium and the Crusades|publisher=Bloomsbury|edition=2nd|isbn=978-1-78093-767-0|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Harvey|first=Alan|title=Economic Expansion in the Byzantine Empire, 900–1200|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=2003|isbn=0-521-52190-4|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Haywood|first=John|title=Cassell's Atlas of World History|location=London|publisher=Cassell|year=2001|origyear=1997|isbn=0-304-35757-X|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Heather|first=Peter|title=The Fall of the Roman Empire|year=2005|location=London|publisher=Macmillan|isbn=978-0-330-49136-5|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=dYR4ngEACAAJ|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Hindley|first=Geoffrey|title=A Brief History of the Crusades|year=2004|location=London|publisher=Robinson|isbn=978-1-84119-766-1|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Hooper|first1=Nicholas|last2=Bennett|first2=Matthew|title=The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=1996|isbn=0-521-44049-1|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=James|first=Liz|title=A Companion to Byzantium|location=Chichester|publisher=John Wiley|year=2010|isbn=1-4051-2654-X|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Jayyusi|first1=Salma Khadra|last2=Marín|first2=Manuela|year=1994|origyear=1992|title=The Legacy of Muslim Spain|edition=2nd|location=Leiden, New York and Köln|publisher=E.J. Brill|isbn=978-90-04-09599-1|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=cbfORLWv1HkC|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Jenkins|first=Romilly James Heald|authorlink=Romilly James Heald Jenkins|title=Byzantium: The Imperial Centuries, CE 610–1071|location=Toronto|publisher=University of Toronto Press|year=1987|isbn=0-8020-6667-4|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Jones|first=Arnold Hugh Martin|title=The Later Roman Empire, 284–602: A Social Economic and Administrative Survey|location=Baltimore|publisher=Johns Hopkins University Press|year=1986|isbn=0-8018-3353-1|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Kaegi|first=Walter Emil|title=Heraclius, Emperor of Byzantium|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=2003|isbn=0-521-81459-6|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Kaldellis|first=Anthony|title=Hellenism in Byzantium: The Transformations of Greek Identity and the Reception of the Classical Tradition|year=2007|publisher=Cambridge University Press|location=Cambridge|isbn=0-521-87688-5|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Karlin-Heyer|first=P.|year=1967|title=When Military Affairs Were in Leo's Hands|journal=Tradition|volume=23|pages=15–40|jstor=27830825|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Kartomi|first=Margaret J.|title=On Concepts and Classifications of Musical Instruments|year=1990|location=Chicago|publisher=University of Chicago Press|isbn=0-226-42548-7|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=gYSOnQEACAAJ|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|editor-last=Kazhdan|editor-first=Alexander Petrovich|editor-link=Alexander Kazhdan|title=[[Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium]]|location=New York and Oxford|publisher=Oxford University Press|year=1991|isbn=978-0-19-504652-6|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Kazhdan|first1=Alexander Petrovich|last2=Constable|first2=Giles|title=People and Power in Byzantium: An Introduction to Modern Byzantine Studies|location=Washington, DC|publisher=Dumbarton Oaks|year=1982|isbn=0-88402-103-3|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Kazhdan|first1=Aleksandr Petrovich|last2=Epstein|first2=Ann Wharton|title=Change in Byzantine Culture in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries|location=Berkeley and Los Angeles|publisher=University of California Press|year=1985|isbn=0-520-05129-7|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Kean|first=Roger Michael|title=Forgotten Power: Byzantium: Bulwark of Christianity|location=Shropshire|publisher=Thalamus|year=2006|isbn=1-902886-07-0|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|title=Reviews: ''The Astronomical Works of Gregory Chioniades, Volume I: The Zij al- Ala'i'' by Gregory Chioniades, [[David Pingree]]; ''An Eleventh-Century Manual of Arabo-Byzantine Astronomy'' by Alexander Jones|first=David A.|last=King|journal=[[Isis (journal)|Isis]]|volume=82|issue=1|date=March 1991|pages=116–118|doi=10.1086/355661|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Klein|first=Holgen A.|title=Eastern Objects and Western Desires: Relics and Reliquaries between Byzantium and the West|journal=Dumbarton Oaks Papers|volume=58|year=2004|pages=283–314|jstor=3591389|ref=harv|doi=10.2307/3591389}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Köprülü|first=Mehmet Fuad|others=Translated and edited by Gary Leiser|year=1992|title=The Origins of the Ottoman Empire|location=Albany|publisher=State University of New York Press|isbn=0-7914-0819-1|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=D-WaKed2iNgC|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Kountoura-Galake|first=Eleonora|title=Ο βυζαντινός κλήρος και η κοινωνία των "Σκοτεινών Αἰώνων ["The Byzantine Clergy and the Society of the 'Dark Ages'"]|year=1996|location=Athens|publisher=Ethniko Idryma Erevnon|isbn=978-960-7094-46-9|language=Greek|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Kuhoff|first=Wolfgang|year=2002|title=Die diokletianische Tetrarchie als Epoche einer historischen Wende in antiker und moderner Sicht|doi=10.1007/BF02898434|journal=International Journal of the Classical Tradition|volume=9|issue=2|pages=177–194|jstor=30224306|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Laiou|first=Angeliki E.|authorlink=Angeliki Laiou|title=The Economic History of Byzantium (Volume 2)|year=2002|location=Washington, DC|publisher=Dumbarton Oaks|editor=Angeliki E. Laiou|chapter=Exchange and Trade, Seventh-Twelfth Centuries|pages=697–708|url=http://www.doaks.org/resources/publications/doaks-online-publications/byzantine-studies/the-economic-history-of-byzantium/ehb36-trade|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Laiou|first1=Angeliki E.|last2=Morisson|first2=Cécile|title=The Byzantine Economy|year=2007|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=0-521-84978-0|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Laiou|first=Angeliki E.|title=The Economic History of Byzantium (Volume 1) |year=2002|location=Washington, DC|publisher=Dumbarton Oaks|editor=Angeliki E. Laiou|chapter=Writing the Economic History of Byzantium|pages=3–8|url=http://www.doaks.org/resources/publications/doaks-online-publications/byzantine-studies/the-economic-history-of-byzantium/EHB01-Writing%20the%20economic%20history%20of%20Byzantium.pdf|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Lapidge|first1=Michael|last2=Blair|first2=John|last3=Keynes|first3=Simon |title=The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England|location=Malden|publisher=Blackwell|year=1998|isbn=0-631-22492-0|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Lenski|first=Noel|year=1999|title=Assimilation and Revolt in the Territory of Isauria, From the 1st Century BC to the 6th Century AD |journal=Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient|issn=0022-4995|volume=42|pages=413–465|doi= 10.1163/1568520991201687|jstor=3632602|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Louth|first=Andrew|title=The New Cambridge Medieval History (Volume I)|editor=Paul Fouracre and Rosamond McKitterick|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=2005|isbn=0-521-36291-1|chapter=The Byzantine Empire in the Seventh Century|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Lowry|first=Heath W.|year=2003|title=The Nature of the Early Ottoman State|location=Albany, NY|publisher=State University of New York Press|isbn=9780791487266|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=31j8T6XoigYC|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Madden|first=Thomas F.|authorlink=Thomas Madden|title=Crusades: The Illustrated History|location=Ann Arbor|publisher=University of Michigan Press|year=2005|isbn=0-472-03127-9|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Magdalino|first=Paul|title=The Economic History of Byzantium (Volume 2)|year=2002|location=Washington, DC|publisher=Dumbarton Oaks|editor=Angeliki E. Laiou|chapter=Medieval Constantinople: Built Environment and Urban Development|pages=529–537|url=http://www.doaks.org/resources/publications/doaks-online-publications/byzantine-studies/the-economic-history-of-byzantium/ehb20-cp|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Magdalino|first=Paul|title=The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143–1180|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=2002|isbn=0-521-52653-1|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Mango|first=Cyril A.|authorlink=Cyril Mango|title=Η Αυτοκρατορία της Νέας Ρώμης |trans-title=Byzantium: The Empire of the New Rome |location=Athens|publisher=Educational Institution of the National Bank of Greece|year=2007|language=Greek |translator=Dimitris Tsoungarakis|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Mango|first=Cyril A.|authorlink=Cyril Mango|title=The Oxford History of Byzantium|location=Oxford|publisher=Oxford University Press|year=2002|isbn=0-19-814098-3|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Matschke|first=Klaus-Peter|title=The Economic History of Byzantium (Volume 2)|year=2002|location=Washington, DC|publisher=Dumbarton Oaks|editor=Angeliki E. Laiou|chapter=Commerce, Trade, Markets, and Money: Thirteenth-Fifteenth Centuries|pages=771–806|url=http://www.doaks.org/resources/publications/doaks-online-publications/byzantine-studies/the-economic-history-of-byzantium/ehb37-trade-late|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=McDonnell|first=Myles Anthony|title=Roman Manliness: Virtus and the Roman Republic|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=2006|isbn=978-0-521-82788-1|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Meier|first=William N.|year=2003|title=Die Inszenierung einer Katastrophe: Justinian und der Nika-Aufstand|issue=142|pages=273–300|journal=Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik|jstor=20191600|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Merryman|first1=John Henry|last2=Perez-Perdomo|first2=Rogelio|title=The Civil Law Tradition: An Introduction to the Legal Systems of Europe and Latin America|year=2007|publisher=Stanford University Press|isbn=978-0-8047-5569-6|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Meyendorff|first=John|authorlink=John Meyendorff|title=The Byzantine Legacy in the Orthodox Church|year=1982|location=Yonkers|publisher=St Vladimir's Seminary Press|isbn=0-913836-90-7|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Millar|first=Fergus|title=A Greek Roman Empire: Power and Belief under Theodosius II (408–450)|location=Berkeley and Los Angeles|publisher=University of California Press|year=2006|isbn=0-520-24703-5|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Miller|first=William|title=Monemvasia|journal=The Journal of Hellenic Studies|volume=27|year=1907|url=https://archive.org/stream/journalofhelleni27sociuoft|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Moravcsik|first=Gyula|title=Byzantium and the Magyars|year=1970|location=Amsterdam|publisher=Hakkert|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Neumann|first=Iver B.|year=2006|title=Sublime Diplomacy: Byzantine, Early Modern, Contemporary|journal=Millennium: Journal of International Studies |volume=34|issue=3|pages=865–888|issn=1569-2981|ref=harv|doi=10.1177/03058298060340030201}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Neville|first=Leonora Alice|title=Authority in Byzantine Provincial Society, 950–1100|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=2004|isbn=0-521-83865-7|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Nicol|first=Donald MacGillivray|title=The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261–1453|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=1993|isbn=0-521-43991-4|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Norwich|first=John Julius|title=A Short History of Byzantium|location=Ringwood, Vic.|publisher=Penguin|year=1998|isbn=978-0-14-025960-5|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Norwich|first=John Julius|year=1982|title=A History of Venice|location=New York|publisher=Alfred A. Knopf Incorporated|isbn=0-394-52410-1|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Cd-AAAAAIAAJ|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou|first=Maria|year=1970|title=Συμβολή εις την χρονολόγησιν των Αβαρικών και Σλαβικών επιδρομών επί Μαυρικίου (582–602) (μετ' επιμέτρου περί των Περσικών πολέμων) [=Contribution to the chronology of Avar and Slav raids during the reign of Maurice (582–602), with an excursus about the Persian Wars"]|language=Greek|url=http://www.byzsym.org/index.php/bz/article/view/649/567|journal=Byzantina Symmeikta|issn=1105-1639 |volume=2 |pages=145–206|accessdate=10 March 2012|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Obolensky|first=Dimitri|authorlink=Dimitri Obolensky|title=Byzantium and the Slavs|year=1994|location=Yonkers|publisher=St Vladimir's Seminary Press|isbn=0-88141-008-X|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Oikonomides|first=Nikos|year=1999|title=L᾽"Unilinguisme" Officiel de Constantinople Byzantine|url=http://www.byzsym.org/index.php/bz/article/view/857/753|journal=Byzantina Symmeikta|issn=1105-1639|volume=13|pages=9–22|accessdate=11 March 2012|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Ostrogorsky|first=George|authorlink=George Alexandrovič Ostrogorsky|title=History of the Byzantine State|location=New Brunswick|publisher=Rutgers University Press|year=1969|isbn=0-8135-1198-4|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Ostrogorsky|first=George|title=The Byzantine Empire in the World of the Seventh Century|journal=Dumbarton Oaks Papers|volume=13|pages=1–21|year=1959|jstor=1291126|ref=harv|doi=10.2307/1291127}}
*
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Paparrigopoulos|first1=Constantine|author1-link=Constantine Paparrigopoulos|last2=Karolidis|first2=Pavlos|author2-link=Pavlos Karolidis|title=Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους ["History of the Greek Nation"], vol. 4|publisher=Eleftheroudakis|language=Greek|year=1925|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Parry|first=Kenneth|title=Depicting the Word: Byzantine Iconophile Thought of the Eighth and Ninth Centuries|location=Leiden and New York|publisher=Brill |year=1996|isbn=90-04-10502-6|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Patterson|first=Gordon M.|title=The Essentials of Medieval History: 500 to 1450 AD, the Middle Ages|location=Piscataway|publisher=Research and Education Association|year=1995|origyear=1990|isbn=978-0-87891-705-1|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Perrottet|first=Tony|title=The Naked Olympics: The True Story of the Ancient Games|publisher=Random House|year=2004|isbn=978-1-58836-382-4|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Postan|first1=Michael Moïssey|last2=Miller|first2=Edward|last3=Postan|first3= Cynthia|title=The Cambridge Economic History of Europe (Volume 2)|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=1987|isbn=0-521-08709-0|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Pounds|first=Norman John Greville|title=An Historical Geography of Europe, 1500–1840|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=1979|isbn=0-521-22379-2|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Read|first=Piers Paul|authorlink=Piers Paul Read|title=The Templars: The Dramatic History of the Knights Templar, The Most Powerful Military Order of the Crusades|location=New York|publisher=St. Martin's Press|year=2000|origyear=1999|isbn=0-312-26658-8|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Reinert|first=Stephen W.|editor=Cyril Mango|chapter=Fragmentation (1204–1453)|title=The Oxford History of Byzantium|location=Oxford|publisher=Oxford University Press|year=2002|pages=248–283|isbn=0-19-814098-3|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Rice|first=David Talbot|authorlink=David Talbot Rice|title=Byzantine Art (3rd Edition)|year=1968|location=Harmondsworth|publisher=Penguin Books Limited|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Robins|first=Robert Henry|title=The Byzantine Grammarians: Their Place in History|year=1993|location=Berlin and New York|publisher=Mouton de Gruyter|isbn=3-11-013574-4|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Rosser|first=John H.|title=Historical Dictionary of Byzantium|chapter=Introduction|location=Lanham, MA|publisher=Scarecrow|year=2011|isbn=0-8108-7567-5|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Runciman|first=Steven|title=The Fall of Constantinople, 1453|year=1990|isbn=0-521-39832-0|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Runciman|first=Steven|year=2004|title=The Byzantine Theocracy|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=9780521545914|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=YQYe7VGlym8C|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Salaman|first=Rena|chapter=The Case of the Missing Fish, or ''Dolmathon'' Prolegomena|pages=184–187|editor-last=Jaine|editor-first=Tom|year=1986|title=Oxford Symposium on Food & Cookery 1984 & 1985: Cookery: Science, Lore & Books: Proceedings (Introduction by Alan Davidson)|location=London|publisher=Prospect Books Limited|isbn=9780907325161|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=jYa3J6xrjt4C|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Sarantis|first=Alexander|year=2009|title=War and Diplomacy in Pannonia and the Northwest Balkans during the Reign of Justinian: The Gepid Threat and Imperial Responses|journal=Dumbarton Oaks Papers|volume=63|pages=15–40|jstor=41219761|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Sedlar|first=Jean W.|title=East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000–1500|volume=III|location=Seattle|publisher=University of Washington Press|year=1994|isbn=0-295-97290-4|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Seton-Watson|first=Hugh|title=The Russian Empire, 1801–1917|location=Oxford|publisher=Oxford University Press|year=1967|isbn=0-19-822152-5|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Šišić|first=Ferdo|authorlink=Ferdo Šišić|title=Povijest Hrvata u vrijeme narodnih vladara: sa 280 slika i 3 karte u bojama|location=Zagreb|publisher=Nakladni zavod Matice hrvatske|year=1990|isbn=86-401-0080-2|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Sotinel|first=Claire|chapter=Emperors and Popes in the Sixth Century: The Western View|editor-last=Maas|editor-first=Michael|title=The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=2005|pages=267–290|isbn=0-521-81746-3|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Speck|first=Paul|journal=Poikila Byzantina|volume=4|year=1984|title=Ikonoklasmus und die Anfänge der Makedonischen Renaissance|pages=175–210|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Stephenson|first=Paul|title=Byzantium's Balkan Frontier: A Political Study of the Northern Balkans, 900–1204|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=2000|isbn=0-521-77017-3|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Tarasov|first1=Oleg|last2=Milner-Gulland|first2=R. R.|title=Icon and Devotion: Sacred Spaces in Imperial Russia|location=London|publisher=Reaktion|year=2004|isbn=1-86189-118-0|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Tatakes|first1=Vasileios N.|last2=Moutafakis|first2=Nicholas J.|title=[[Byzantine Philosophy]]|year=2003|location=Indianapolis|publisher=Hackett|isbn=0-87220-563-0|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Teall|first=John L.|year=1967|title=The Age of Constantine Change and Continuity in Administration and Economy|journal=Dumbarton Oaks Papers|volume=21|pages=11–36|jstor=1291256|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Timberlake|first=Alan|title=A Reference Grammar of Russian|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=2004|isbn=978-0-521-77292-1|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Treadgold|first=Warren|title=Byzantium and Its Army, 284–1081|location=Stanford|publisher=Stanford University Press|year=1995|isbn=0-8047-2420-2|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Treadgold|first=Warren|title=A History of the Byzantine State and Society|location=Stanford|publisher=Stanford University Press|year=1997|isbn=0-8047-2630-2|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Troianos|first=Spyros|last2=Velissaropoulou-Karakosta|first2=Julia|title=Ιστορία δικαίου από την αρχαία στην νεώτερη Ελλάδα ["History of law from ancient to modern Greece"]|location=Athens|publisher=Sakkoulas|year=1997|isbn=960-232-594-1|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Vasiliev|first=Alexander Alexandrovich|authorlink=Alexander Vasiliev (historian)|title=History of the Byzantine Empire|year=1928–1935|location=Madison|publisher=The University of Wisconsin Press|url=http://www.intratext.com/X/ENG0832.HTM|isbn=0-299-80925-0|ref=harv}}
*{{Kaynak|soyadı=Vasiliev|ad=Alexander A.|başlık=Bizans İmparatorluğu Tarihi|yıl=2016|yayıncı=Alfa Yayınları|yer=İstanbul|isbn=9786051712659|yazarbağı=Aleksandr Vasilyev (tarihçi)|diğerleri=Tevabil Alkaç, çev.}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Versteegh|first=Cornelis H. M.|title=Greek Elements in Arabic Linguistic Thinking|year=1977|isbn=90-04-04855-3|location=Leiden|publisher=Brill|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Vryonis|first=Speros|title=The Decline of Medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor and the Process of Islamization from the Eleventh through the Fifteenth Century|year=1971|location=Berkeley, CA|publisher=University of California Press|isbn=978-0-52-001597-5|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=wBpIAAAAMAAJ|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Watson|first=Bruce|title=Sieges: A Comparative Study|year=1993|location=Westport|publisher=Praeger|isbn=0-275-94034-9|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Weitzmann|first=Kurt|authorlink=Kurt Weitzmann|title=The Icon|year=1982|location=London|publisher=Evans Brothers|isbn=0-237-45645-1|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Wells|first=Herbert George|authorlink=H. G. Wells|title=A Short History of the World|location=New York|publisher=Macmillan|year=1922|isbn=0-06-492674-5|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Whittow|first=Mark|title=The Making of Byzantium, 600–1025|location=Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA|publisher=University of California Press|year=1996|isbn=0-520-20496-4|ref=harv}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Wickham|first=Chris|authorlink=Christopher Wickham|title=The Inheritance of Rome: A History of Europe from 400 to 1000|location=New York|publisher=Viking|year=2009|isbn=0-670-02098-2|ref=harv}}
* {{Dergi kaynağı|last=Wolff|first=Robert Lee|year=1948|title=Romania: The Latin Empire of Constantinople|journal=Speculum|volume=23|issue=1|pages=1–34|jstor=2853672|ref=harv|doi=10.2307/2853672}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Wroth|first=Warwick|title=Catalogue of the Imperial Byzantine Coins in the British Museum|year=1908|publisher=British Museum Dept. of Coins and Medals|isbn=1-4021-8954-0|ref=harv}}
{{Refend}}
 
== Ek kaynaklar ==
{{refbegin|30em}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last1=Ahrweiler|first1=Hélène|last2=Aymard|first2=Maurice|title=Les Européens|year=2000|location=Paris|publisher=Hermann|isbn=2-7056-6409-2}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Angelov|first=Dimiter|title=Imperial Ideology and Political Thought in Byzantium (1204–1330)|year=2007|location=Cambridge, United Kingdom|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=0-521-85703-1}}
* Baboula, Evanthia, Byzantium, in ''Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God'' (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014. ISBN 1-61069-177-6
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı |author1=Evans, Helen C. |author2=Wixom, William D |lastauthoramp=yes | url=http://libmma.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15324coll10/id/188784|title=The glory of Byzantium: art and culture of the Middle Byzantine era, A.D. 843-1261 | location=New York | publisher=The Metropolitan Museum of Art | year=1997 | isbn=978-0-8109-6507-2}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Cameron|first=Averil|title=Byzantine Matters|year=2014|location=Princeton NJ|publisher=Princeton University Press|isbn=978-1-4008-5009-9}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Haldon|first=John|title=The Byzantine Wars: Battles and Campaigns of the Byzantine Era|year=2001|location=Stroud, Gloucestershire|publisher=Tempus Publishing|isbn=0-7524-1795-9}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Haldon|first=John|title=Byzantium: A History|location=Stroud, Gloucestershire|publisher=Tempus Publishing|year=2002|isbn=1-4051-3240-X}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Harris|first=Jonathan|title=The Lost World of Byzantium|location=New Haven CT and London|publisher=Yale University Press|year=2015|isbn=978-0-300-17857-9}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Hussey|first=J. M.|title=The Cambridge Medieval History. Vol.&nbsp;IV: The Byzantine Empire|year=1966|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Runciman|first=Steven|authorlink=Steven Runciman|title=Byzantine Civilisation|year=1966|location=London|publisher=[[Edward Arnold (publisher)]] Limited|isbn=1-56619-574-8}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Runciman|first=Steven|title=The Emperor Romanus Lecapenus and his Reign|origyear=1929|year=1990|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=0-521-06164-4}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Stathakopoulos|first=Dionysios|title=A Short History of the Byzantine Empire|year=2014|location=London|publisher=I.B.Tauris|isbn=978-1-78076-194-7}}
* {{citeKitap bookkaynağı|last=Toynbee|first=Arnold Joseph|title=Constantine Porphyrogenitus and His World|location=Oxford|publisher=Oxford University Press|year=1972|isbn=0-19-215253-X}}
{{Library resources box|onlinebooks=yes}}
{{refend|2}}
765.900

değişiklik