Ana menüyü aç


düzeltme AWB ile
[[Dosya:PompeiiStreet.jpg|thumb|rightsağ|250px|[[Pompeii]]'deki bir antik Roma sokağı]]
[[Dosya:Metopa Columna lui Traian Constructie drum.jpg|thumb|250px|rightsağ|[[Roma]]da Trajan'in Sütunu anıtında yol yapımı gösterimi.]]
'''Antik Roma yolları''' [[Roma İmparatorluğu]]'nun büyüyüp gelişmesinde zorunlu bir unsur olmuştu. Bu yollar nedeniyle Romalılar orduları için emniyetle ve hızla büyük alanlar içinde hareket alanı sağlamışlardır. Bu yollar aynı zamanda haberleşme ve iletişim için elzem olmuşlardır. İktisadi bakımdan ise antik Roma yolları Roma yiyecek ve emtia ticaretinin gelişmesinde ve çok geniş bir alanda Roma mallarının yayılıp dağıtılabilmesini sağlamıştır. Roma İmparatorluğunun en parlak zamanlarında antik Roma yolları ağı 85.004 km. kara yolunu kapsamaktaydı ve 372 bağlantıdan oluşmaktaydı.
Roman law defined the right to use a road as a ''servitus'', or claim. The ''jus eundi'' ("right of going") established a claim to use an ''iter'', or footpath, across private land; the ''ius agendi'' ("right of driving"), an ''actus'', or carriage track. A ''via'' combined both types of ''servitutes'', provided it was of the proper width, which was determined by an ''arbiter''. The default width was the ''latitudo legitima'' of 2.4 m (8 ft). In these rather dry laws we can see the prevalence of the public domain over the private, which characterized the republic.
[[Dosya:2006 0814Histria Road Market20060416.jpg|thumb|leftsol|Istirya'da bir Rantik Roma yolu.<ref></ref>]]
With the conquest of Italy prepared ''viae'' were extended from Rome and its vicinity to outlying municipalities, sometimes overlying earlier roads. Building ''viae'' was a military responsibility and thus came under the jurisdiction of a consul. The process had a military name, ''viam munire'', as though the via were a fortification. Municipalities, however, were responsible for their own roads, which the Romans called ''viae vicinales''.
''Viae'' were generally centrally placed in the countryside. Features off the ''via'' were connected to the ''via'' by ''viae rusticae'', or secondary roads. Either main or secondary roads might be paved, or they might be left unpaved, with a gravel surface, as they were in North Africa. These prepared but unpaved roads were ''viae glareae'' or ''sternendae'' ("to be strewn"). Beyond the secondary roads were the ''viae terrenae'', "dirt roads". A road map of the empire reveals that it was laced fairly completely with a network of prepared ''viae''. Beyond the borders are no roads; however, one might presume that footpaths and dirt roads allowed some transport.
[[Dosya:Campidoglio - il miliarium.JPG|thumb|leftsol|Mesafe taşı.]]
=== Yollarda seyahat ===
Before 250 BC, the [[via Appia]], and after 124 BC, most viae, were divided into numbered miles by [[milestone]]s. The modern word mile derives in fact from the Latin ''milia passuum'', "one thousand [[pace (length)|pace]]s", which amounted to about 1,500&nbsp;m. A milestone, or ''miliarium'', was a circular column on a solid rectangular base, set for more than 60&nbsp;cm into the ground, standing 1.50&nbsp;m, 50&nbsp;cm in diameter, weighing more than 2 tons. At the base was inscribed the number of the mile relative to the road it was on. In a panel at eye-height was the distance to the [[Roman Forum]] and various other information about the officials who made or repaired the road and when. These miliaria are valuable historical documents now. Their inscriptions are collected in the volume XVII of the ''[[Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum]]''.
[[Dosya:Roman milestone rabagao portugal.jpg|thumb|leftsol|150px|A provincial roman milestone, at Alto Rabagao, Portugal (Road from Bracara Augusta to Asturias)]]The Romans had a preference for standardization whenever they could, so [[Augustus]], after becoming permanent commissioner of roads in 20 BC, set up the ''[[miliarium aureum]]'' (''golden [[milestone]]'') near the [[temple of Saturn]]. All roads were considered to begin from this gilded bronze monument. On it were listed all the major cities in the empire and distances to them. [[Constantine I (emperor)|Constantine]] called it the ''[[umbilicus Romae]]'' (''navel of Rome''), and built a similar — although more complex — monument in [[Constantinople]], the [[Milion]].
Milestones permitted distances and locations to be known and recorded exactly. It was not long before historians began to refer to the milestone at which an event occurred.
=== Guzergah ===
[[Dosya:Part of Tabula Peutingeriana.jpg|thumb|leftsol|'''Tabula Peutingeriana''' (merksi Güney İtalya.]]
The libratores began their work. Using ploughs and legionaries with spades, they excavated the road bed down to bed rock or at least to the firmest ground they could find. The excavation was called the ''fossa'', "ditch". The depth varied according to terrain.
[[Dosya:High Street and Small Water from Harter Fell.jpg|leftsol|thumb|High Street, a [[fell]] in the [[England|English]] [[Lake District]], named after the Roman road which runs over the [[Summit (topography)|summit]], which is the highest Roman road in Britain]]
The road was constructed by filling the ditch.This was done by layering rock over other stones. The method varied according to geographic locality, materials available and terrain, but the plan, or ideal at which the architect aimed was always the same. The roadbed was layered.
The Roman road (from [[Cazane]] near [[Iron Gates]]) was half carved into the rock, about 1.5-1.75 m, the rest of the road, above the [[Danube]], was made from wooden structure, projecting out of the cliff. this road functioned as a towpath, making the Danube navigable. Roman architects preferred to engineer solutions to obstacles rather than circumvent them.
[[Dosya:Engineering corps traian s column river crossing.jpg|thumb|leftsol|River Crossing.]]
River crossings were achieved by bridges, or pontes. Single slabs went over rills. A bridge could be of wood, stone, or both. Wooden bridges were constructed on pilings sunk into the river, or on stone piers. Larger or more permanent bridges required arches. Roman bridges were so well constructed that many are in use today.
[[Dosya:TabulaTraiana.jpg|thumb|Tabula Traiana over Roman road.|250px]]
[[Dosya:Roman Empire 125.svg|thumb|rightsağ|400px|The Roman empire in the time of [[Hadrian]] (ruled 117-38 AD), showing the network of main '''Roman roads''']]
There are many examples of roads that still follow the route of Roman roads.
[[Dosya:BALKANS ROMAN ROADS .jpg|thumb|rightsağ|200px|Roman roads along the [[Danube]]]]
*[[Trajan's bridge]] ve [[Iron Gates]] road.
* Via Traiana — Porolissum Napoca Potaissa Apulum road.