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Called '''Antium''' in [[Ancient history|ancient times]], it was the capital of the [[Volsci]] people until it was conquered by the [[ancient Rome|Romans]].
With the latter expansion of Rome it was just far enough away to be insulated from the riots and tumults of Rome. When [[Cicero]] returned from exile, it was at Antium that he reassembled the battered remains of his libraries, where the scrolls would be secure. Leading Romans built magnificent seaside villas at Antium. The Julian and Claudian emperors frequently visited it: [[Gaius Maecenas]] had a villa at Antium; both Emperor [[Caligula]] andve [[Nero]] were born in Antium; the latter founded a colony of veterans and built a new harbour, the projecting moles of which still exist.
Remains of Roman villas are conspicuous all along the shore, both to the east and to the north-west of the town. Many ancient works of art have been found there: the ''[[Fanciulla d'Anzio]]'', the ''[[Borghese Gladiator]]'' (in the [[Louvre]]) and the ''[[Apollo Belvedere]]'' (in the [[Vatican Museums|Vatican]]) were all discovered in the ruins of villas at Antium.
=== Middle Ages ===
In the Middle Ages Antium was deserted in favour of Nettuno: at the end of the 17th century [[Pope Innocent XII|Innocent XII]] andve [[Clement XI]] restored the harbour, not on the old site but to the east of it, with the opening to the east, a mistake which leads to its being frequently silted up; it has a depth of about 5 m. The sea is encroaching slightly at Anzio, but some kilometres farther north-west the old Roman coast-line now lies slightly inland (see [[Tiber]]). The Volscian city stood on higher ground and somewhat away from the shore, though it extended down to it. This was defended by a deep ditch, which can still be traced, and by walls, a portion of which, on the eastern side, constructed of rectangular blocks of tufa, was brought to light in 1897.
=== World War II ===
{{Main|Operation Shingle}}
Anzio and [[Nettuno]] are also notable as sites of an [[Allied]] forces landing ([[Operation Shingle]]) and ensuing battle (known as the Battle of Anzio) during [[World War II]]. [[Commonwealth of Nations|The Commonwealth]] [[Anzio War Cemetery]] andve [[Beach Head War Cemetery]] are located here.
[[Military of the United States|American forces]] ([[Fifth United States Army|5th Army]]) were surrounded by Germans in the caves of Pozzoli in February 1944 for a week, suffering heavy casualties. A movie based on the events called [[Anzio (film)|''Anzio'']] (1968, directed by [[Edward Dmytryk]]) was made, starring [[Robert Mitchum]] and based on a book by [[Wynford Vaughan-Thomas]].
== Nüfus gelişimi ==
Anzio'nun belediye sınırları içinde nüfusu (4.2010 itibarıyla) 54.455 kişidir. 19. yy ve 20.yy da Anzio'nun nüfusunun gelismesigelişmesi şu gösterimde görülebilir: