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(Yeni sayfa: "{{About|visual art practiced in the street|performing art practiced in the street|Street performance|street theatre|Street theatre}} {{Use dmy da...")
{{About|[[visual arts|visual art]] practiced in the street|[[performing arts|performing art]] practiced in the street|Street performance|street theatre|Street theatre}}
{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2013}}
{{refimprove|date=October 2013}}
[[File:Banksy-ps.jpg|thumb|Graffiti by [[Banksy]] (Bristol, 2000s)]]
[[File:BrokenPromises JohnFekner.jpg|thumb|365px|[[John Fekner]]: ''Broken Promises/Falsas Promesas'', South Bronx, 1980.]]
'''Sokak sanatı''' toplumsal alanlarda yaratılan ve içerik olarak sanat çevresinin dışında yer alan bir [[görsel sanat]] türüdür. Bu tanım seksenlerin başlarında popülerlik kazanmıştır. Sokak sanatını günümüzde birçok farklı uygulaması vardır.
'''Street art''' is [[visual art]] created in public locations, usually unsanctioned artwork executed outside of the context of traditional art venues. The term gained popularity during the graffiti art boom of the early 1980s and continues to be applied to subsequent incarnations. [[Stencil graffiti]], [[flyposting|wheatpasted poster art]] or [[sticker art]], and [[street installation]] or [[sculpture]] are common forms of modern street art. [[video design|Video projection]], [[yarn bombing]] and [[Lock On (street art)|Lock On]] sculpture became popularized at the turn of the 21st century.<ref>[http://www.scoop.it/t/tejn Street installations, wheat pasted street posters, Lock On street art sculptures]</ref>
Geleneksel sprey boyamalar sokak sanatını temelini oluştururken çokları tarafından vandalism olarak nitelendirilmektedir.
The terms "[[urban art]]", "[[guerrilla art]]", "post-graffiti" and "neo-graffiti" are also sometimes used when referring to artwork created in these contexts.<ref>"Neo-graffiti" is a term coined by ''Tokion Magazine'' in the title of its Neo-Graffiti Project 2000, which featured "classic" subway graffiti artists working in new media; others have called this phenomenon "urban art." A discussion by the [[Wooster Collective]] on terminology can be found at [http://www.woostercollective.com/2004/01/what_the_hell_should_we_call_i.html WoosterCollective.com.]</ref> Traditional spray-painted graffiti artwork itself is often included in this category, excluding territorial graffiti or pure [[vandalism]].
Günümüzde artık sokak sanatı da galerilerde yerini bulmaya başlamıştır. Özellikle başlangıç noktasını düşündüğümüzde, geleneksel sanat anlayışına ve endüstriyel sanata karşı bir duruş olan sokak sanatı artık ticari sanatın içinde yer bulmaya başlamıştır. Ana akım sanat içinde bulduğu yer, bilinirliliğini arttırdığı gibi içerik olarak zarar vermiştir. Sokak sanatı birçok kültürün karışımını içerir. Aynı zamanda modern şehirlerin bir çoğunda sokak sanatına rastlayabiliriz. Farklı kültürlere rağmen bu kültürlerin içinde yer bularak, şehirli gençlerin sesi haline gelmiştir.
Artists who choose the streets as their gallery are often doing so from a preference to communicate directly with the public at large, free from perceived confines of the formal art world.<ref name="ReferenceA">Schwartzman, Allan, ''Street Art'', The Dial Press, Doubleday & Co., New York, NY 1985 ISBN 0-385-19950-3</ref> Street artists sometimes present socially relevant content infused with esthetic value, to attract attention to a cause or as a form of "art provocation".<ref name="NYPress" />
Sokak sanatçıların bir çoğu gezerek sanatını özgür alanlara taşır. Son dönemdeki en popüler sokak sanatçısı Banksy'dir. Birçok ülkede yaptığı onlarca eser ile tanınır.
Street artists often travel between countries to spread their designs. Some artists have gained cult-followings, media and art world attention, and have gone on to work commercially in the styles which made their work known on the streets.
.</ref> Common variants include adbusting, [[subvertising]] and other [[culture jamming]], the [[community ownership|abolishment of private property]] and [[Reclaim the streets|reclaiming the streets]].
[[File:Berlinermauer.jpg|thumb|268px|Germany's [[Berlin Wall]] (shown 1986) was a target of artists during its existence (1961–1989).]]
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File:IATBAwall.jpg|[[René Moncada]]: ''[[I AM THE BEST ARTIST Rene|I AM THE BEST ARTIST René]]'', New York (1986).
File:Notvjacksonheights.jpg|[[John Fekner]]: ''No TV'', street installation, New York (1980).
File:AndreTheGiantSticker.gif|[[Shepard Fairey]]: ''[[André the Giant]] has a Posse'', sticker art (c.1989).
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="4">
File:MorleyDivorcedWheatpaste.jpg|[[Morley (artist)|Morley]], [[Los Angeles]] (2010)
File:Mcgeegarage.jpg|[[Barry McGee]] (Twist), [[Los Angeles County Museum of Art|LACMA]] parking garage (c.2005).
File:Smear Street Art1.jpg|[[Smear (Cristian Gheorghiu)|Smear]], [[Los Angeles]] (2006).
File:Os Gêmeos.jpg|[[Os Gêmeos]], Lisbon, [[Portugal]] (2011).
File:Graffiti Perú.jpg|Graffiti in [[Lima]], [[Peru]] (2014).
=== Europe and Asia ===
'''[[London]]''' has become one of the most pro-graffiti cities in the world. Although officially condemned and heavily enforced, street art has a huge following and in many ways is embraced by the public, for example, [[Stik]]'s stick figures.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://dulwichonview.org.uk/2012/06/12/walking-with-stik/ | title=Walking with Stik | work=[[Dulwich OnView]], UK | date=12 June 2012 | accessdate=17 June 2012}}</ref>
'''[[Culture of Bristol#Graffiti|Bristol]]''' is part of a street art scene, due in part to the success of [[Banksy]].<ref>{{cite news| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/local/london/hi/people_and_places/newsid_8734000/8734690.stm | work=BBC News | title=Has Banksy struck in Primrose Hill? | date=11 June 2010}}</ref> and the See No Evil event curated by Inkie.{{Citation needed|date=October 2013}}
'''[[Poland]]''' has artists like Sainer and Bezt known for painting huge murals on buildings and walls.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://netdost.com/profiles/blogs/huge-street-art-paintings-buildings-created-artist-duo-etam-cru-- | work=NetDost | title=Huge murals on buildings created by artist duo ETAM CRU | date= 16 January 2014}}</ref>
'''[[Paris, France]]''' has an active street art scene which is home to artists such as [[Invader (artist)|Space Invader]] and [[Zevs (artist)|Zevs]].
Some connect the origins of street art in France to [[Lettrism]] of the 1940s and [[Situationist International|Situationist]] slogans painted on the walls of Paris starting in the late 1950s. [[Nouveau Réalisme|Nouveau realists]] of the 1960s, including [[Jacques de la Villeglé]], [[Yves Klein]] and [[Arman]] interacted with public spaces but, like [[Pop Art]], kept the traditional studio-gallery relationship. The 1962 street installation ''Rideau de Fer'' (Iron Curtain) by [[Christo and Jeanne-Claude]] is cited as an early example of unsanctioned street art. In the 1970s, the site-specific work of [[Daniel Buren]] appeared in the Paris subway. [[Blek le Rat]] and the [[Figuration Libre]] movement became active in the 1980s.{{Citation needed|date=October 2013}}
[[Berlin wall graffiti art|Street art on the Berlin Wall]] was continuous during the time '''[[Germany]]''' was divided, but street art in [[Berlin]] continued to thrive even after reunification and is home to street artists such as [[Thierry Noir]]. Post-communism, cheap rents, and ramshackle buildings gave rise to street art in areas such as [[Mitte]], [[Prenzlauer Berg]], [[Kreuzberg]], and [[Friedrichshain]].{{Citation needed|date=October 2013}}
The street art scene in '''[[Greece]]''' has been active since the late 1980s but gained momentum in '''[[Athens]]''' leading up to the country's 2011 financial crisis, with a number of artists raising voices of resistance, creating allegorical works and social commentary in the historic city center and [[Exarhia]] district.
The ''[[New York Times]]'' published a story about the crisis in relation to street art, and art in general.<ref name="in Athens art blossoms amid debt crisis">{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/15/arts/in-athens-art-blossoms-amid-debt-crisis.html?_r=3&pagewanted=1&sq=greece&st=cse&scp=4|title=In Athens art blossoms amid debt crisis|publisher=The New York Times|last=Donadio |first=Rachel |accessdate=14 October 2011 |date=14 October 2011}}</ref>
Street art by [[Bleeps.gr]], whose work has been categorized as "[[artivism]]", can be found in neighborhoods such as [[Psiri]].
Major Spanish coastal cities of '''[[Spain]]''' such as [[Barcelona]], [[Valencia, Spain|Valencia]] and [[Zaragoza]] have a vibrant street art scene.<ref>[http://mystreetarts.weebly.com/barcelona.html Street Art Website, Spain Section.] Retrieved 12 November 2011.</ref>
'''[[Italy]]''' has been very active in street art since the end of the 1990s; some of the most famous street artists include [[Blu (artist)|BLU]], [[108 artist|108]], and [[Sten Lex]].{{Citation needed|date=October 2013}}
Street art in '''[[Amsterdam]]''' ([[Netherlands]]) centers around the [[Indische Buurt#Flevopark|Flevopark]], on the east side, NDSM wharf in Amsterdam Noord, and the [[De Wallen|Red-light District]]. Artists who have gained recognition include Niels Shoe Meulman, Ottograph, [[Max Zorn (artist)|Max Zorn]], Mickey, DHM, X Streets Collective,<ref>[http://offtrackplanet.com/featured/otps-guide-to-street-art-amsterdam/ "OTP's Guide to Street Art", ''Off Track Planet'', 20 October 2011]{{dead link|date=April 2013}}</ref> Bustart, Mojofoto, Mark Chalmers and collective CFYE.
The city is home to the "Amsterdam Street Art" group, promoting street art in the city with aims to bring it to the same level as that of London, Paris, and Barcelona.<ref>[http://www.amsterdamstreetart.com/ '&#39;Amsterdam Street Art'&#39; site]. Amsterdamstreetart.com. Retrieved on 2 April 2013.</ref>
The city of [[Bergen]] is looked upon as the street art capital of '''[[Norway]]'''.<ref name="Ba.no">{{cite web|url=http://www.ba.no/puls/article5037839.ece|author=Ødegård, Ann Kristin |date=24 March 2010|title=Gatekunstens hovedstad|accessdate=24 March 2010|publisher=Ba.no|language=Norwegian}}</ref> British street artist [[Banksy]] visited the city in 2000 and inspired many to take their art to the streets.<ref name="Dagbladet.no">{{cite web|url=http://www.dagbladet.no/nyheter/2008/03/10/529267.html|author=Thorkildsen, Joakim |title=Fikk Banksy-bilder som takk for overnatting|date=10 March 2008|publisher=Dagbladet.no|language=Norwegian}}</ref>
[[DOLK (artist)|Dolk]] is among local street artists in Bergen.<ref name="Ba.no">{{cite web|url=http://www.ba.no/puls/article5726885.ece|title=Derfor valgte ikke DOLK Bergen|accessdate=18 September 2011|publisher=Ba.no|language=Norwegian}}</ref><ref name="Bt.no">{{cite web|url=http://www.bt.no/bergenpuls/Popular-Dolk-selger-sa-det-suser-2579379.html#.T1OGAfEaND1|title=Populær Dolk selger så det suser|author=Bergesen, Guro H. |accessdate=21 September 2011|publisher=Bt.no|language=Norwegian}}</ref> His art can be seen around the city. Bergen's city council in 2009 chose to preserve one of Dolk's works with protective glass.<ref name="Ba.no">{{cite web|url=http://www.ba.no/nyheter/politikk/article4425460.ece|title=Forsvarer verning av graffiti|accessdate=26 June 2009|publisher=Ba.no|language=Norwegian}}</ref>
In 2011, the city council launched a plan of action for street art from 2011–2015 to ensure that "Bergen will lead the fashion for street art as an expression both in Norway and [[Scandinavia]]".<ref name="Bergen.kommune.no">{{cite web|url=https://www.bergen.kommune.no/bk/multimedia/archive/00105/Graffiti_og_gatekun_105438a.pdf|title=Bergenkommune.no – Graffiti og gatekunst i kulturbyen Bergen – Utredning og handlingsplan for perioden 2011–2015|accessdate=10 May 2011|publisher=Bergen.kommune.no|language=Norwegian}}</ref>
The city of '''[[Stavanger]]''' is host to the annual [[Nuart Festival]], one of Europe's leading events dedicated to promoting street art. [[Oslo]], by contrast, has a [[zero tolerance]] policy against graffiti and street art, although artists such as [[DOT DOT DOT (artist)|DOT DOT DOT]] have created work there.{{Citation needed|date=October 2013}}
Street art came to '''[[Sweden]]''' in the 1990s and has since become the most popular way to establish art in public space.
The 2007 book "Street Art [[Stockholm]]", by Benke Carlsson, documents street art in the country's capital.{{Citation needed|date=October 2013}}
The street art scene of '''[[Finland]]''' had its growth spurt from the 1980s onwards, until in 1998 the city of [[Helsinki]] began a ten-year zero tolerance policy which made all forms of street art illegal, punishable with high fines, and enforced through private security contractors. The policy ended in 2008, after which legal walls and art collectives have been established.{{Citation needed|date=October 2013}}
[[Wheatpaste]] and stencil graffiti art in '''[[Denmark]]''' increased rapidly after visits from [[FAILE (artist collaboration)|Faile]], Banksy, [[Ben Eine]], and Shepard Fairey between 2002–2004, especially in urban areas of [[Copenhagen]] such as [[Nørrebro]] and [[Vesterbro, Copenhagen|Vesterbro]].<ref>[http://www.v1gallery.com/exhibition/archive] gallery housing mentioned street artists</ref> Copenhagen is home of [[Tejn (artist)|TEJN]], the artist credited with introducing the [[Lock On (street art)|Lock On]] street art genre.<ref>[http://www.scoop.it/t/tejn Collection of English, German, French, Italian, Polish, Chinese and Danish media referring to TEJN and the Lock On genre]</ref>
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File:Wattts street art paris.jpg|Street art by WATTTS in [[Paris]].
Since the collapse of communism in 1989, street art became prevalent in '''[[Poland]]''' throughout the 1990s. In the city of [[Łódź]] a permanent city exhibition was financed in 2011, under the patronage of Mayor Hanna Zdanowska, called "Urban Forms Gallery".<ref>{{cite web|author=Eugene |url=http://www.mymodernmet.com/profiles/blogs/polish-city-embraces-street-art |title=Polish City Embraces Street Art – My Modern Metropolis |publisher=Mymodernmet.com |date=29 September 2011 |accessdate=7 July 2012}}</ref> The exhibition included work from some of Poland's elite street artists as well as globally known artists. Despite being mostly accepted by the public, with authorities occasionally allowing artists licenses to decorate public places, other properties are still illegally targeted by artists. [[Warsaw]] and [[Gdansk]] are other Polish cities with a vibrant street art culture.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.fatcap.com/country/poland.html |title=Poland – Street-art and Graffiti |publisher=FatCap |date= |accessdate=7 July 2012}}</ref>
A monument in '''[[Bulgaria]]''' depicting Soviet Army soldiers was targeted by anonymous street artists in June, 2011.
The soldiers of the monument, located in [[Sofia, Bulgaria|Sofia]], were embellished to portray [[Ronald McDonald]], [[Santa Claus]], [[Superman]], and others. The monument existed in that condition for several days before being cleaned. Some citizens were in favor of allowing the embellishments to remain.{{Citation needed|date=October 2013}}
'''[[Moscow]]''' has increasingly become a hub for [[Graffiti in Russia|Russian graffiti artists]] as well as international visitors.
The Street Kit Gallery, opened in 2008, is dedicated to street art and organizes events in galleries, pop-up spaces and on the streets of the city. The 2009 Moscow International Biennale for Young Art included a section for street art.
Active artists include Make, RUS, and [[Kiev]]-based Interesni Kazki (also active in Miami and Los Angeles).<ref>[http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/14/arts/14iht-rartstreet.html Alice Pfeiffer, "Graffiti Art Earns New Respect in Moscow", ''New York Times'', 13 October 2010]</ref>
Britain's [[BBC]] network highlighted the artwork of Moscow street artist [[Pavel 183]] in 2012.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-16957832 | title=Street artist 'Russia's answer to Bansky' | work=BBC | date=8 February 2012 | accessdate=21 June 2012}}</ref>
In '''[[South Korea]]''''s second largest city, [[Busan]], German painter Hendrik Beikirch created a mural over {{convert|70|m|ft|abbr=out}} high, considered Asia’s tallest at the time of its creation in August, 2012. The monochromatic mural portrays fisherman.<ref>http://www.dezeen.com/2012/09/07/asias-tallest-mural-by-hendrik-beikirch/</ref> It was organized by [[Public Delivery]].<ref>http://publicdelivery.org/asias-tallest-mural-hendrik-beikirch/</ref>
A 2012 project in '''[[Malaysia]]''' funded by the [[Penang]] State Government was undertaken to liven up the streets and celebrate the recognition of [[Georgetown, Penang]] as a [[UNESCO]] site. Street art was drawn onto the walls of 18th-century terrace houses and the Clan Jetty located near Weld Quay (Pengkalan Weld). Initially done at the center of Chulia Street, near [[Khoo Kongsi]], the increase in the number of visitors wishing to take pictures with the wall paintings has encouraged the government to support the street art culture. Steel rod sculptures have been added to the walls of buildings throughout Georgetown.{{Citation needed|date=October 2013}}
=== Australia and Africa ===
'''[[Melbourne]]''' (''see [[Street art in Melbourne]]'') is home to one of the world's most active and diverse street art cultures and is home to pioneers in the stencil medium. Street artists such as [[Blek le Rat]] and [[Banksy]] often exhibited works on Melbourne's streets in the 2000s (decade). Works are supported and preserved by local councils. Key locations within the city include [[Brunswick, Victoria|Brunswick]], [[Carlton, Victoria|Carlton]], [[Fitzroy, Victoria|Fitzroy]], [[Northcote, Victoria|Northcote]], and the [[Melbourne city centre|city centre]] including the famous [[Hosier Lane, Melbourne|Hosier Lane]].
'''[[Perth, Western Australia|Perth]]''' also has a small street art scene. [[Sydney]]'s street art scene includes [[Newtown area graffiti and street art]].{{Citation needed|date=October 2013}}
'''[[New Zealand]]''': In 2009 in [[Auckland]], street art decorated the city with sophisticated graphic imagery. Auckland's city council permitted electrical boxes to be used as canvases for street art. Local street art group ''TMD'' (The Most Dedicated) won the "Write For Gold" international competition in Germany two years in a row. Surplus Bargains is another local collective.<ref>Allen, Linlee. (9 November 2009) [http://tmagazine.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/11/09/street-smart-aucklands-art-bandits/ Linlee Allen, "Street Smart | Auckland’s Art Bandits"], ''New York Times''. Tmagazine.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved on 2 April 2013.</ref>
Although street art in '''[[South Africa]]''' is not as ubiquitous as in European cities, [[Johannesburg]]'s central [[Newtown, Johannesburg|Newtown]] district is a centre for street art in the city.<ref>[http://www.joburg.org.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=8189:report-graffiti-hotspots&catid=88:news-update&Itemid=266 "Report graffiti hotspots", City of Johannesburg site, 28 June 2012]{{dead link|date=April 2013}}</ref> The "City Of Gold International Urban Art Festival" was held in the city's [[Braamfontein]] civic and student district in April 2012.<ref>[http://allafrica.com/stories/201204170700.html "South Africa: Hotel, Graffiti Crew Partner to Host Art Festival", AllAfrica.com, 16 April 2012]. Allafrica.com (16 April 2012). Retrieved on 2 April 2013.</ref>
The ''[[New York Times]]'' reported '''[[Cairo]]''''s emergence as a street art center of the region in 2011. Slogans calling for the overthrow of the [[Hosni Mubarak|Mubarak]] regime has evolved into æsthetic and politically provocative motifs.<ref>Wood, Josh (27 July 2011) [http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/28/world/middleeast/28iht-M28-EGYPT-TAGS.html?pagewanted=all "The Maturing of Street Art in Cairo"], ''New York Times''.</ref><ref>[http://creativevisualart.com/2013/07/04/the-best-of-egyptian-political-street-art/ "The Best Of Egyptian Political Street Art"]. Retrieved on 4 July 2013.</ref>
Street art from '''[[Egypt]]''', '''[[Tunisia]]''', '''[[Yemen]]''', and '''[[Libya]]''' has gained notoriety since the [[Arab Spring]], including a 2012 exhibition in [[Madrid]]' s Casa Árabe.<ref>Duggan, Grace. (2 February 2012) [http://intransit.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/02/02/arab-spring-street-art-on-view-in-madrid/ "Arab Spring Street Art, on View in Madrid"], ''New York Times''.</ref>
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== Festivals and conferences ==
[[Sarasota Chalk Festival]] was founded in 2007 sponsoring street art by artists initially invited from throughout the U.S. and soon extended to internationally. In 2011 the festival introduced a ''Going Vertical'' mural program and its ''Cellograph'' project to accompany the street drawings that also are created by renowned artists from around the world. Many international films have been produced by and about artists who have participated in the programs, their murals and street drawings, and special events at the festival.<ref>[http://www.yourobserver.com/content/2012-Chalk-Festival-342.html ''Chalk Festival''], a forty-page guide to the 2012 Sarasota Chalk Festival, Sarasota Observer, 28 October through 6 November 2012</ref>
=== Belgesel Filmler ===
[[Living Walls]] is an annual street art conference founded in 2009.<ref>{{cite news|last=Guzner|first=Sonia|title=‘Living Walls’ Speaks Out Through Street Art|url=http://www.emorywheel.com/detail.php?n=29880|accessdate=9 January 2012|newspaper=The Emory Wheel|date=22 August 2011}}</ref> In 2010 it was hosted in [[Atlanta]] and in 2011 jointly in Atlanta and [[Albany, New York]]. Living Walls was also active promoting street art at [[Art Basel Miami Beach]] 2011.<ref>[http://livingwallsconference.com/index.php?/about/ Living Walls website]</ref>
*''[[RASH (film)|RASH]]'' (2005), Avustralya sokak sanatı üzerine
*''[http://www.roadsworth.com/main/video/video.html Roadsworth: Crossing the Line]'' (2007), sokak sanatının yasalarla mücadelesi üzerine
The RVA Street Art Festival is a street art festival in [[Richmond, Virginia]] began in 2012. It is organized by Edward Trask and Jon Baliles. In 2012, the festival took place along the Canal Walk; in 2013 it will take place at the abandoned GRTC lot on Cary Street.<ref>{{cite news|title=2013 RVA Street Art Festival to revitalize GRTC property|url=http://wtvr.com/2013/03/20/2013-rva-street-art-festival/|accessdate=22 May 2013|newspaper=CBS6|date=20 March 2013}}</ref>
=== Documentary films ===
*''[[RASH (film)|RASH]]'' (2005), a feature length documentary by Mutiny Media exploring the cultural value of Australian street art and graffiti
*''[http://www.roadsworth.com/main/video/video.html Roadsworth: Crossing the Line]'' (2007), a documentary film about the legal struggle of Montreal street artist Roadsworth
*''[[Bomb It]]'' (2008), a documentary film about graffiti and street art around the world
*''[[Exit Through the Gift Shop]]'' (2010), a documentary created by the artist [[Banksy]] about [[Thierry Guetta]]
[[File:Graffiti Panorama rome.jpg|650px|thumb|center|[[Aerosol paint|Spray-paint]] [[graffiti]] wall mural; [[Rome, Italy]].]]
== See also ==
== Bunlara da bakınız ==
*[[Father Pat Noise]]
*[[Street poster art]]
*[[Yarn bombing|Yarn Bombing]]
== References ==
{{Reflist |30em |refs=
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<ref name="Leagle">
{{cite web | url = http://www.leagle.com/xmlResult.aspx?xmldoc=19931582835FSupp747_11471.xml&docbase=CSLWAR2-1986-2006 | title = MONCADA v. RUBIN-SPANGLE GALLERY, INC. - November 4, 1993. | date = 4 November 1993
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<ref name="Film">
{{cite AV media | people = ''[[I AM THE BEST ARTIST Rene]]'' mural
| title = [[The Secret of My Success (1987 film)]] | medium = Comedy film
| publisher = Universal Studios
| location = USA
| year = 1987
<ref name="SoHo2">
{{cite book | last1 = Glassman
| first1 = Carl
| title = SoHo; A Picture Portrait | year = 1985
| publisher = Universe Books
| location = New York, NY
| isbn =0-87663-566-4| pages = TK
<ref name="Claudio Ethos">
{{cite web
| url = http://www.juxtapoz.com/current/exclusive-feature-on-claudio-ethos
| title = Claudio Ethos
| first = Gabe
| last = Scott
| date = 17 July 2009
| work = Exclusive Feature
| publisher = High Speed Productions, Inc
| accessdate = October 2013
<ref name="Wall Played">
{{cite web
| url = http://www.sfbg.com/2012/01/17/wall-played
| title = Wall Played
| first = Caitlin
| last = Donohue
| date = 16 January 2012
| work = Art Basel take two: Street art in Wynwood
| publisher = San Francisco Bay Guardian
| accessdate = October 2013
<ref name="Kilroy">
{{cite web
| url = http://www.straightdope.com/columns/read/1812/whats-the-origin-of-kilroy-was-here
| title = What's the origin of 'Kilroy was here'?
| first = Ed
| last = Zotti
| date = 14 August 2000
| work = Straight Dope; staff report from the Science Advisory Board
| publisher = Sun-Times Media, LLC.
| accessdate = October 2013
== FurtherYabancı readingdilde okumalar ==
*Robinson, David (1990) ''Soho Walls&nbsp;– Beyond Graffiti'', Thames & Hudson, NY, ISBN 978-0-500-27602-0