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== Early life and family ==
Aqa Ali Shah was born in 1830 at [[Mehellat]] in [[İran]]. He was the eldest son of [[I. Ağa Han]] and the only surviving male issue of his father with Sarv-i Jahan Khanum ({{lang|fa-Latn|Sarv-i Jahān Khānum}}, d. 1882). Aqa Ali Shah was a member of the Iranian royal family, as his mother was the daughter of [[Feth Ali Şah Kaçar|Fet′h Ali Şah]], the second ruler of the [[Kaçar Hanedanı]].<ref name="Daftary-Ismailis">{{cite book | title=The Ismā‘īlīs: Their History and Doctrines| last=Daftary| first=Farhad| year=1990| pages=439, 463, 498, 504, 516–18| publisher=Cambridge University Press| location=Cambridge |isbn=0-521-42974-9}}</ref> His rank as a prince of the royal family was also recognized by [[NasserNasıreddin alŞah|Nâsır el-DinDîn ShahŞâh QajarKaçar]] when Aqa Ali Shah's father died. Nasser al-Din himself carried out a ceremony performed among Persian princes to mark the end of mourning of deceased relations. In addition, Nasser al-Din sent a robe of honour and the emblem of the Persian Crown studded with diamonds to Aga Ali Shah as a sign of the Shah's relationship with the Aga Khan's family.<ref name="Dumasia-AgaKhan">{{cite book | title=The Aga Khan and His Ancestors: A Biographical and Historical Sketch| last=Dumasia| first=Naoroji M.| year=1939| pages=60–62| publisher=Bombay| location=The Times of India Press}}</ref>
 
On his father's side, Aga Ali Shah traced his ancestry to the Prophet [[Muhammad]], through his daughter [[Fatimah|Fatima]] and his son-in-law [[Ali|Ali b. Abi Talib]]. He also descended from the [[Fatimid]] caliphs of [[Egypt]].<ref name="AgaKhan-Memoirs">{{cite book | title=The Memoirs of Aga Khan: World Enough and Time| last=Aga Khan| year=1954| pages=7, 11, 192| publisher=Cassell and Company Ltd.| location=London}}</ref> He spent his early years in [[Mehellat]]; however, his father’s attempts to regain his former position as governor of [[Kirman]] made residence there difficult, and so Aqa Ali Shah was taken to [[Iraq]] with his mother in 1840. There he studied [[Arabic]], [[Persian language|Persian]], and [[Nizari]] [[Ismaili]] doctrine,<ref name="Daftary-Ismailis"/> and soon gained a reputation as an authority on Persian and Arabic literature, as a student of metaphysics, and as an exponent of religious philosophy.<ref name="Dumasia-AgaKhan"/> In the late 1840s, changed political circumstances allowed Aqa Ali Shah to return to [[Iran|Persia]] where he took over some of his father's responsibilities.<ref name="Algar-Iranica">{{cite journal | author=H. Algar| title=Āqā Khān| journal=Encyclopaedia Iranica| year=1996| volume=1}}</ref> In 1853, Sarv-i Jahan Khanum and Aqa Ali Shah joined Aga Khan I in [[Bombay]]. As his father's heir apparent to the Ismaili Imamat, Aqa Ali Shah frequently visited various Ismaili communities in South Asia, particularly those in [[Sind Division|Sind]] and [[Kathiawar]].<ref name="Daftary-Ismailis"/>
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