"Konsül" sayfasının sürümleri arasındaki fark

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== Antik Roma ==
* [[Romalı konsül]], [[Antik Roma]] medeniyetinin cumhuriyet ile yönetildiği dönemdeki en üst düzey yöneticileri ifade eder.
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== Other uses in antiquity ==
=== Other city's States ===
While in many cities (as in Gaul) there was a double-headed chief magistracy, often another title was used, such as ''Duumvir'' or native styles such as ''Meddix'', but ''Consul'' was used in some.
 
=== Private sphere ===
It was not uncommon for various organisations under Roman private law to copy the terminology of state and city institutions for its own statutory agents (the very founding statute or contract was also called ''lex'', 'law')
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== In Feudal times ==
In various Italian city states, the republican regimes (elsewhere or in other periods, the presiding bishop or a hereditary prince or lord was in charge) gave its [[Chief Magistrate|chief magistrates]] the title of ''Consul''; thus there have been governments lead by consuls in [[Bologna]], Novara (with one Maggiore as head of state), [[Trani]], [[Treviso]].
 
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== Modern republics ==
=== French republican consuls ===
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* Bu unvan aynı zamanda [[1799]] ile [[1804]] arasında [[Napolyon]]'un Devrimi öncesi [[Fransa]]'da görev alan devlet başkanlarına verilmiştir.
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=== Roman republican consuls ===
Since on 15 February 1798 – 23 June 1800 the [[Roman Republic (18th century)|Roman Republic]] was declared,
it was headed by multiple (not just two-member) consulate, which 27 November 1798 – 12 December 1798 occupied by "Sicily" (Naples); since 11 July 1799 – 28 September 1799 the republic was occupied by France, 30 September 1799 – 23 June 1800 occupied by "Sicily" (i.e. the kingdom of Naples), later one of the home-realms of the Italian kingdom.
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== Bolognese Republic ==
The short-lived [[Bolognese Republic]], proclaimed in 1796 as a [[French client republic]] in the Central Italian city of [[Bologna]], had a government consisting of nine consuls and its head of state was the ''Presidente del Magistrato'', i.e., [[Chief magistrate|Chief Magistrate]], a presiding office held for four months by one of the consuls. As noted above, Bologna already had Consuls at some parts of its Medieval history.
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=== Paraguay ===
In between series of juntas (and various other short-lived regimes), the young republic was governed by Consuls of the Republic in power (2 consuls alternating in power every 4 months):
*12 October 1813 – 12 February 1814 José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia y Velasco (1st time)
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=== Revolutionary Greece ===
Among the many petty local republics that were formed during the first year of the [[Greek Revolution]], prior to the creation of a unified Provisional Government at the [[First National Assembly at Epidaurus]], were:
*The Consulate of [[Argos]] (from 26 May 1821, under the Senate of the [[Peloponnese]]) had a ''single'' head of state, styled consul, 28 March 1821 – 26 May 1821: Stamatellos Antonopoulos
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== See also ==
* [[Consularis]] (Roman gubernatorial style)
* [[Captain Regent]] (similar modern position in San Marino's government)
**[[List of Roman Consuls]]
 
== Sources and references ==
*[[Pauly–Wissowa]]
*[http://www.worldstatesmen.org/ WorldStatesmen—see each present country]
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