k (Bot: Artık Vikiveri tarafından d:q225749 sayfası üzerinden sağlanan 25 vikilerarası bağlantı taşınıyor)
The same happened in some cities in France, especially in the Mediterranean south, e.g., [[Avignon]], [[Limoges]].
The city-state of [[Genoa]], unlike ancient Rome, bestowed the title of ''Consul'' on various state officials, not necessarily restricted to the highest. Among these were Genoese officials stationed in various Mediterranean ports, whose role included helping Genoese merchants and sailors in difficulties with the local authorities. This institution, with its name, was eventually emulated by other powers and eventually led to the modern meaning of consul — see [[Consul (representative)]].
In England, the clerks of [[Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester]] made a practice of using the [[Latin]] word ''consul'' rather than the more common ''comes'' when translating his title of '[[Earl]]' — though he was not, and made no pretence of being, an elected magistrate of any sort. Modern historians sometimes call him, for that reason, "Robert the Consul", though he himself and his contemporaries did not use that name.
* Bu unvan aynı zamanda [] ile [] arasında [[Napolyon]]'un Devrimi öncesi [[Fransa]]'da görev alan devlet başkanlarına verilmiştir.
In 1799, revolutionary [[France]] enacted a constitution that conferred supreme executive powers upon ''three'' officials that bore the title ''Consul'' as chief magistracy of the republic. In reality, however, the state was de facto under personal control of the [[First Consul]], general [[Napoleon I of France|Napoleon Bonaparte]], so in political terms it was more like a re-edition of Julius Caesar's and Octavian's [[triumvirate]]s.
Originally the consuls were to hold office for a period of ten years, but in 1802 Bonaparte was declared First ''Consul for life'' (lifetime consulate was introduced for Second and Third Consuls as well). The French consulate ceased to exist when Bonaparte was declared [[Emperor]] of the French in 1804.
===Roman republican consuls===
Since on 15 February 1798 – 23 June 1800 the [[Roman Republic (18th century)|Roman Republic]] was declared,
it was headed by multiple (not just two-member) consulate, which 27 November 1798 – 12 December 1798 occupied by "Sicily" (Naples); since 11 July 1799 – 28 September 1799 the republic was occupied by France, 30 September 1799 – 23 June 1800 occupied by "Sicily" (i.e. the kingdom of Naples), later one of the home-realms of the Italian kingdom.
The members of the Consulates were: